Trisodium phosphate in a 8%-12% solution (pH 12, Temperature 7-13°C) ist used as a spray or bath for about 15 sec.
It disrupts the microbes cell membranes and romoves their protective fat films, causing them to leak their intercellular fluit.
Sodium chlorite is used at a concentration of 500-1200 mg/Liter in combination with an arbitrary acid (pH of the solution 2.3-2.9) for 15 seconds as a spray or 5-8 seconds when dipping.
(It can also be used in chilling water up to 150 mg/Liter for 1 to 3 hours.)
It oxidises cellular contituents and disrupts protein synthesis.
Chlorine dioxide is used up to 50mg/l in sprays, washes and for chiller bathes.
Ist function is similar to sodium chlorite.
Peroxacids also oxidize the cell membrane and are used in concentrations up to 220mg/l für up to 15 sec in sprays ans washes or up to 60 min in chiller baths.
In Germany we have (due to the TTIP-negotiations) a lot of discussion about chlorine-washed chicken.
Chlorine chicken have become kind of a symbol for the type of food many European consumers do not want to be imported from the US, along hormone fatted beef, GMO-grains etc.
One Problem in the discussion is: Nobody seems to really know, what exactly “chlorine washed” means.
Some say, chlorine is only used in very small amounts, like in a swimming pool, to avoid the multiplication of pathogens in the chilling tanks.
Others say, several sprays and bathes of different high concentration chemicals are used to literally disinfect the contaminated (e.g. with excrements) carcasses.
Therefore I am searching for detailed information on such a processing plant:
What chemicals in which concentration are typically used and how and for how long are they applied?
What Sepp is showing in the Video is not the spring itself, but the sedimentation tank.
The water is coming in from the spring through the pipe from the left side.
You dig out the spring as deep into the hillside as you can. Be carefull not to destroy the impermeable layer below it, or you would loose the water.
Than you built a little dam in front of the spring. Made of loam or clay or concrete or plastic, whatever is available.
You put in a perforated pipe as water intake.
Than you fill the spring with washed gravel.
To avoid sediment from above to plug the holes in the intake tube you cover the whole thing with clay or loam or concrete or food grade geotextile.
http://www.mosimann-leitungsbau.ch/Quellwasser-Fassungen.htm The cover also prevents surface water from running into the spring.
Than you put on as much earth as possible. Our regulations here say, springs used for trinking water need to have at least 3 m of cover on them, to prevent surface pathogens from getting into the water.
Below the spring usually s sedimentation box is installed to avoid sediments getting into your pipe system.
If you have beef cattle, why do you think about these two breeds at all?
I would use a dual purpose breed in this case. A good Simmental cow easily produces 5000 liters of milk from good pasture, with no concentrate. And she gives you a calf worth fattening, both pure breed or crossed with your beef bull.
After successfully stopping the planned, very adverse reform of the EU seeds directive, the European seed savers lead by Arche Noah (the Austrian seed savers organization) and Global 2000 (the Austrian part of Friends of the Earth International ) now handed over a petition with more than 500.000 signatures that is claiming free use and legal sales of heritage breeds.
The photo shows Austrian farming minister Andrä Rupprechter forwarding the petition to EU health commissioner Tonio Borg.
The problem with swans is, that they are very territorial during breeding season. If you confine several of them during breeding, they might even start killing each other.
In Europe there are some people keeping swans as a pastime.
But as you cannot keep them in numbers, they are not interesting as livestock.
No big loss as they are just big geese. And you can keep other geese in any number you want.
The cabin has seen some progress in the meantime.
Along the driveway was a row of rotten spruce stumps and behind them a row of overaged elder shrubs.
We cut these down to allow more light into the garden. We are hoping most of the elder stumps will shoot again, to give us a new, but smaller hedge as a screen and some blossom and fruit harvest.
The rotten spruce and the twigs went on a pile in the back of the garden, to create a little biotope.
Looks like a wren already made up its new home there. The elder trunks went on the firewood heap.
Nature is starting very early this year. The butterburs are breaking out of the ground.
Behind the cabin we have cleared out a lot of trees too, as we want to plant fruit trees there.
Firewood for the next couple of winters. (The pile is bigger than picture´s the perspective suggests).
The first chickenweed pancakes of the year. Harvested from the greenhouse and the hens. Chickenweed is often reckoned as an annoying weed. But it actually tastes better than most conventional salad or spinach greens.
Grandpa´s old Kramer and plow have been helpful again.
And Tanja is removing wheelbarrows full of weed roots to clear the now reanimated vegetable garden for her seeds and plants.
As money is always short, and to give their residents a meaningful task, they try to live of their own produce as much as possible.
They have a big vegetable garden and are increasing their livestock constantly.
A visitor (Nile monitor)
One of their jersey cows giving birth to her jersey x brahman x nguni calf.
10 days later
Same creek after 450 mm rain within 24 hours. Usual yearly rainfall is 1250 mm.
Imagine what could be achieved there with professional rain harvesting.
Sometimes you just wish you were a cow. (At the beach, about two by car from their location.)
I wonder: What is the advantage of building piles at all, in this system?
Here people say the main advantage of hot composting is, that weed seeds are sterilized by the high temperature.
And of course hot composting is faster.
But should not the hens eat most of seeds? And would not many seeds survive in the material the hens scratch away from the pile (if not eaten by the hens).
And does the heat inside the pile not stop more complex critters (other than bacteria and ray fungus) to develop?
Would more complex critters not provide more or better food for the hens?
Could you not simply spread the material on the ground?
We call this “Flächenkompostierung”. I do not know if there is a English word for it. Perhaps area composting? Like trees simply letting their leafs fall to the ground. I have not seen nature build a hot compost pile by now.
If you want to harvest the compost after the hens are done with it, you have to rake it together anyway.
And you could simply use some sprinkler system to keep the stuff moist and all the little critters at work.
Perhaps the pile building is necessary due to the hot and dry climate in Australia?
(Edit: The posting I am referring to seems to have been deleted?)
We were talking about potential energy storage.
Hydraulic pressure storage is a different thing.
And I do not know about any available electric to electric pressure storage system in household size.
You link shows high power short term storage systems for automotive applications.
Even if you would turn this into a bigger long term storage system and develop a small high efficiency hydraulic generator, you would still be far away from the 94% (mechanic energy to mechanic energy) cycle efficiency shown in your link due to 2 (or at least 1) more energy conversions and the energy loss in the storage due to compressed gas cooling down during a longer storage time.
And you would have extra costs for technical inspection every year, as pressure vessel regulations do apply, especially to a bigger long term storage system. You would not like to see one of these go off…
There are some interesting developments in compressed air storage systems, too, combined with heat storage, to avoid the energy loss by cooling of the compressed air. But again I do not know of any household size system available now.
I think all these options (potential energy, hydraulic- or gas pressure) are too complex to make them cost effective for single households.
But I can well imagine they will once be used in medium size as peripheral storage systems for whole villages or for bigger wind engines and photovoltaic plants, allowing these plants to deliver energy on demand.
In Germany we have some big pump storages, too.
They had been designed to store the energy from nuclear and coal plants at night and provide for peak consumption during the day.
Now they are mostly used to store the peaks of solar and wind energy, but are hardly profitable any more, as the price difference during the day is too low and the use too irregular.
For small uses it is a problem of size and transformation efficiency.
At an overall efficiency of 50%, to store 1 kWh you would need to lift a weight of 740 tons to a height of 1 meter, or 74 tons to 10 meters, or 7.4 tons to 100 meters.
You need a big tank, an efficient pump and an efficient turbine.
You can buy a lot of battery capacity for that kind of money...
This family is reanimating a historic vicarage. The big house and the adjoining buildings are turned into several apartments. The whole thing is surrounded by a permaculture garden.
Website: http://www.erdenpfad.de/index.html They are also offering WOOF-like helper holidays.
Small scale grain growing
One of the kitchens (on the inside they are allowed to be creative).
New shed, made of used wood to fit into the ensamble.
To help tear down the language barrier, I´d like to show you, from time to time, some of the pictures posted at our German-speaking homesteading and permaculture forums www.selbstvers.org
A Selbstversorger is a self-sufficient person (or at least interested in self-sufficiency).
Location: Brandenburg, Germany
Glasshouse made of used windows.
Their new mailbox, created by her husband, who is an artist blacksmith.
I live in the Frankenwald (Franconian Forest) in the very north of Bavaria.
One of my brothers studied and worked in Hameln for some time.
Yes it was. But several parts of the building have been rebuilt over time.
There is a similar sawmill in a neighboring valley that has been restored by the local mill association as a museum.
You can see some photos of it if you scroll down on this webside:
http://www.muehlenverein-rodachtal.de/index2.html The miller’s family lived the stony part of the building, which contains the kitchen and a small bedroom. The children slept in the pitched roof area above. Looks like their business was doing well, else they would not have been able to build of stone.
The wooden part of the building contains the reciprocating saw and below it the gearing mechanism.
In my mill the family lived in the section left of the door:
The chute for the tree trunks used to be were you see the green door now.
The mill wheel, saw etc. were placed in the long wooden part of the building.
Same construction as in the other mill, just mirror inverted.
But later the sawmill part was rebuild into housing space and most of the walls exchanged by cement stones.
I was told their junior director made it as the practical part of his Master course exam.
In my region almost all really old houses are block homes, too. Only rich people could afford to build of stone here. But you cannot see the wood, as the houses are covered with slate from the outside to protect them against the moist climate, and with lime plaster from the inside to make them windproof and brighter.
A picture of such a traditional farm house from my area:
Or the Umgebindehaus. The name refers to the arched construction with the beams on the outside at the first floor. The upper floor is often made of Fachwerk.
These houses have their origin in Saxony and parts of Thuringia.
The Japanese seem to be a class of their own, taking the quality of joinery a good furniture Schreiner could do to the scale of a Zimmermann´s work. I can hardly imagine anyone can pay for this quality of work in a high wage country like Japan nowadays. Guess most of the building work there is done by more western standards now.
Zimmermann (for the big stuff) and Schreiner (for the small woodworks) are the two most common occupations. In both you can get a Master.
A synonym for Schreiner is Tischler (table maker).
I do not know any synonym for Zimmermann, except of Zimmerer which is the same thing, depending on the local dialect.
There are some more specialized occupations that have different names.
A Drechsler is a wood turner.
A Stellmacher is wheelwright. Nowadays they most of them are building special vehicles, working with all kinds of material.
A Böttcher (cooper?) makes barrels etc.
A Holzinstrumentenbauer (wooden instrument make) builds violins, guitars etc.
Regarding further education there is an occupation called Holztechniker (wood engineer). This is a 2 year qualification you can do alternatively to a master course. As entry requirement you need a Realschul-Abschluss (~junior high exam) plus an apprenticeship in one of the above occupations plus at least 1 year of experience. Holztechniker can specialize for example in industrial wood processing like chipboard production or large scale furniture production or they are working as structural draftsman and designing engineers.
And you can get a university degree in woodworking. There are different areas of expertise offering bachelor and master degrees. A German specialty is the Diplomingenieur degree. This was the common name for university degrees in engineering before the Bachelor and Master degrees were introduced here, too. Many universities still offer these grades in combination with the new ones.
There used to be the Diplomingenieur (FH) who did a 4 year training at an university of applied sciences (Fachhochschule) and the Diplomingenier (without the FH added) who did 5 years at a university with more theoretic focus.
They are called “Zimmermann” here.
A “Schreiner” is a woodworker specialized on smaller things like furniture, doors, windows etc.
And I sure did not want to express they are less qualified. It simple is a different approach for the same target. Not worse, not better, just different.
Before you can call yourself a Zimmermann here, you have to go through a 3 year formal apprenticeship. It starts with a year of full time school for theory and basic practical education, followed by two years of working with a company under direction of a qualified master and in between some more weeks of school for further theory.
After finishing your apprenticeship and two years practice as a journeyman you can take part in a master course that takes one more year fulltime.
Until 2004 only masters had been allowed to start their own company. Than the law was modified due to EU regulations. Now journeymen with at least 6 years of experience (at least 4 years in leading position) are also allowed to start a business.
As far as I know, you do not have any formal qualification system comparable to this?
The bridge you are talking about is a construction like this,
just bigger, and with a roof like this
on top, to protect the wooden construction against moisture?
What is PE? The statcis calculation and building plans? You need these here for building permission.
So we have 28 x 8 x 32.5$ = 7280 $ for the frame.
For the roof let us say 30 x 10 / 100 * 300 $ = 900 $ (Sounds really cheap to me. Bitumen shingles?)
I guess the platform for the shingles is not included?
So I add 300 ft2 of boards for the roof.
220 ft2 of boads for the deck.
450 ft2 of boards for the siding.
If a 5’ board costs 0,525 $ per foot that is
(300+220+450) x (12/5 x 0.525 $ for material + 4$ for work) = 5100 $
For the fundations 2 x 3 yd x 1 yd x 1,5 yd x 200 $ /yd3 = 1800 $
Plus 4000 $ PE (not sure what this is)
= 19080 $ = 13700 Euro
Not that far from what I estimated?
A small gasoline-driven current generator like the Endress ESE 2000 needs about 0.7 liter / h for a constant current output of 1000 W.
That is an efficiency factor of approximately
1 kW h / (11,3 kWh/kg x 0,75 kg/l x 0,7 l) = 16,8%
A gasoline car engine has a maximum efficiency factor of 35 % - 40%.
The realistic efficiency factor while driving is more like 15% - 20% as the engine runs at partial performance most of the time.
A car alternator usually has an efficiency factor of about 50 % - 70%, as it is optimized to be cheap and reliant and not for maximum efficiency.
This gives us an overall efficiency for current generation of about 17,5% (motor) x 60% (alternator) = 10,5 %
100 kg of extra load in the car increases the gasoline consumption of the car by about 0,3 liter / 100 km.
If we can obtain a constant electric power of 100 W from the alternator for loading our batteries and we drive at 80 km / h, than we need do go 800 km to gather 1 kWh.
This means an extra consumption of 8 x 0,3 l = 2,4 l of gasoline, just for cruising the 2 or 3 batteries and a box for them around.
To generate 1 kWh with our car while driving we therefore need
1 kWh / (11,3 kWh/kg x 0,75 kg /l x 10,5%) + 2,4 l = 3,5 liter of gasoline.
Giving us a total efficiency factor of
1 kW x 1 h / (11,3 kWh/kg x 0,75 kg/l x 3,5 l) = 3,3 %
This means: We need 16,8/3,3 = 5 times more gasoline to produce the same amount of electric energy if we use our car instead of a small generator unit.
I did a half year internship with an engineering company as part of my Master program. There we calculated building projects as you describe it: This type of wall does cost x per m2 and this type of roof does cost y per m2 and joinery including work cost z per m3 etc.
But all the small building companies around here are calculating by material and man hour.
Of course you can have a fixed price offer. But in this case they usually hedge their bets and you end up paying more.
During the last 3 years a had a barn roof exchanged and two single pitch roof halls built and all bidders calculated in material and working hours.
I have picked out the invoice for the last one: They accounted 43,50 Euro/h (net, you have to add 19% VAT) for the forman and 42 Euro/h for the journeyman.
This includes all the hand tools they use, insurance, etc. Big machinery like an excavator is accounted separately.
This approach is absolutely common around here.
As an expert, can you give us a rough number how much such a roofed wooden bridge (28’ span length, 8’ wide, 5000 pound live load) would cost (including material and fundaments) in your area, if all the work is done by a contractor?
The 25 x 25 is measured in feet?
Now wonder, he is stressed.
If he was born in a herd and not grown up by the bottle, it is already most stressing for him to live alone now. But if you put him in such a small area, with electric wire right in front of his nose all the time and nowhere to go to calm down, it´s astonishing he kept in there for the first 24 h.
Get him some company (if you cannot get another cow, than at least another small grazing animal or two) and make your grazing cells far bigger.
It is called mop grazing as it is done by a mop of animals. Gregarious animals feel secure in a mop. If they cannot feel secure, they need more space to make sure their flight ignition distance is preserved.
Two years ago I bought this old house some kilometers from my home. I wanted it to be my little haven of silence and am thinking about building my retirement home there.
It used to be a small sawmill until about 1930. Later the lot was used as a nursery, selling vegetable seedlings, vegetables and flowers. It even had a heated greenhouse for growing orchids.
After the gardener died, the greenhouse was knocked down und parts of the lot were sold to neighbors. Unfortunately they sold most of the mill race, too. (Else I might have been able to restore it and install a turbine.)
Then an older, introvert man bought the house and the remaining acre of land and lived a modest life there, for the last 3 decades. He seems not to have cared much about maintenance. So the house was in rather wretched condition when he sold it to me and moved away.
It is of the grid, except a telephone line (no cell reception there). Water comes from a spring and electricity is provided by some solar panels with accumulators and a generator as backup.
As I am always short of time, things failed to move forward as I had hoped.
I had to find a better solution, a new permaculture element.
As a friend of mine looked for an inexpensive place to live, we decided she should move in and help with the renovation.
(Building law does not allow me to build a new home there until I have lived in the place for a couple of years, as it belongs to the exterior zone. So we have to renovate the place to at least make it habitable for some years. )
The desired improvements accelerated and in the meantime she was able to move in with her horde of animals.
Ready for calcimining:
The composting toilet before and after renovation:
We removed the wall between sleeping room and bathroom, to make the room bigger and brighter.
An old wood stove for cooking.
Window before (left) and after grinding and first layer of paint (right).
(You get an impression, what the whole place looked like.)
Germany has quite a boom in this business.
Either individual farmers or unions of them are providing heating services.
Not only for industry, also for schools and dwelling zones etc.
In most cases “small” stationary heating plants are built. In some cases they use mobile container based units.
The heating material usually is wood chips.
Some newer plants are also producing electricity.
And often the wood burning plants are combined with biogas plants.
The biogas plant provides electricity and warm water year around. And the extra heating demand in winter is provided by burning wood chips.
Excess heat from the biogas plant in summer is often used for drying the wood chips. Thus they do not waste the excess heat but are using it to increase the fuel value for the winter.
But it is a big materials moving business. I am not sure if it really can be called permaculture.
A village 10 kilometers from my home has built a cooperative biogas and wood chip system combined with solar panels. By now more than 60% of the houses in the village are connected to the system. Most of the others are heating with wood from their own forests, too.
By now their system includes:
-Biogas plant with 2 x 65 kW current generators (130 kW electric power, about 250 kW thermal power, the rest of the heat is required for heating the biogas reactors).
-Wood chip heating system with 500 kW thermal power.
-Wood chip drying hall
-2,4 km of isolated pipes for hot water transport through the village
-325 kWp photovoltaic systems
-60 m2 of solar hot water collectors
-3 kW water turbine
-several small private wood heating systems
One farmer is the director and is operating the biogas and heating plant. The other farmers provide the system with feed for the biogas reactor and wood chips.