The things I have tried and had good success with are 1. spent coffee grounds, you need to cover the mound and all around at least 1 meter from the outer edge of the mound. make the grounds a 3 cm thick layer
2. boiling water, this is poured into the mound and then, again, all around the mound at least 1 meter from the outer edge of the mound. Use at least 20 liters per application (may take several applications in increasingly further distances from the edge of the mound)
3. Club Soda, pour into the mound at least 3 2L bottles of club soda, this removes O2 from the ant colony and they suffocate.
The only other method I have tried with success is to introduce a large number of ants from a different colony, the battle tends to kill off many of the ants, but, it can backfire if they are the same species.
My best results were achieved by using methods 1 and 2 in succession then a few days later using number 3 method.
As Thomas brings up, put the barrow (a cut shoat) and the shoat (an under 8 month old boy) into their own pen.
hogs are herd animals, they want to be in a group and if they aren't they will find a way to be with others of their kind.
Boy hogs don't become able to impregnate a female until they are around 8 months old, so if he is younger than that, he is learning what his job will end up being. (consider that what he is doing now is pre adult play learning)
By separating the boys from the girls you will have better control of all your hogs and you won't have to worry about line breeding by accident.
keep all hogs away from any trees you want to grow, and keep them out of your garden areas.
I like to use hog panels, you need posts every 4 feet (for when the hogs get larger, they are very powerful animals) and make sure the fence is on the same side of the post as the hogs are.
Gilbert Fritz wrote:As far as I can tell, the Colorado plains have historically been treeless, except along the Front Range foothills and along the creeks. This due to a combination of a dry climate, fire, and grazing buffalo; there are few native trees that would survive here.
However, some non-native trees survive fairly well, such as Russian olive, Honey locust, and Siberian elm. Some of these are now classified as invasive.
Would it be possible to turn large areas of the plains into savanna? Would it be desirable? Or should restoration work focus on planting willows and cottonwoods along the creeks and bringing back the grass on degraded ranch land?
The Carbon Farming Solution seems to suggest that adding trees to grasslands will sequester much more carbon than grass alone; so would this help? Or would it just imbalance the ecosystem worse then ever?
While this sounds like a good idea, fire will prevail in this area and that means any trees that are not part of a fire disturbance (fire resistant species and varieties) would not be a good idea to plant.
The best method of using this land is to restore it to the grass lands it is supposed to be, and then create pockets of food plantings. Any other use would be something where you are fighting against nature and that only works with constant diligence and disruption. Then just when you think you are winning, a fire will come, because that is the nature of this land, and all your work will get to be done again. It is always the best method to work with plants that nature recognizes as belonging in any area, that insures you better success with the minimum of effort and disturbance.
Lightening storms are the prime way fires get started in the plains and unless you have found a way to regulate or control these, you will be fighting against nature and the earth mother. I have never seen any situation where this built a lasting agriculture or horticulture without constant work, and even then nature finds a way to reclaim what is rightfully hers.
hau Chad, it is good to see you on a journey of discovery.
When you make butter the technical name for the left over liquid is "Butter Milk" not whey.
Whey comes from the process of cheese making, in most places the whey is the by product of making cheese.
When you make butter you save the butter milk for either drinking or baking.
When you make cheese, you save the whey and that is your lactobacillus serum (fancy name used to differentiate only one use of this by-product) Whey is also used as a hog food and can be used in chicken feed formulas too.
When you are gathering bacteria with the cooked rice method you need to make sure where you are putting the rice into the ground has the bacteria present that you want to gather.
Molasses is used to feed the bacteria not stabilize it, this if the real food that grows the bacteria to high enough numbers to be able to be a good inoculant for your soil.
I have found a lot of misunderstanding published on the net as fact. This creates a situation of people trying things without knowing the exact method to succeed the best way possible.
Instead they get less desirable results than what they read, that can lead to discouragement or a repeat of methodology mistakes.
There are a few sites that do have accurate information, but it is best to locate the original information to use as reference.
I have had to turn around some customers solutions because they were growing bad bacteria by following a not accurate formula and methodology.
Thanks Keith and Judith,
I have plans to give it a try as soon as I get the front end of my infrastructure list back under control.
Arkansas is moving up USDA Zones, previously we were 7a in the northern part of the state and 7b in the central area and 8a down next to Louisiana.
Now the northern part of the state is classified 7b/8a, central is 8a/8b and the southern edge is 8b.
This is actually quite a significant shift. 12/11/2017 the temp on our farm was 73f, we have had five days that were near the "Normal" temps of 55-60 range.
I am thinking now that I can plant the Moringa on the south face of our mountain and it will be fine as long as I use the pockets of deeper soil for their home.
We live in Montana and recently did a simple soil test. It returned:
pH: 7.3 (alkaline)
We have heavy clay soil.
Growing Zone: 5b
We have several large hugel beds for vegetables and rotational grazing fields over several acres. Alpacas (and all camelids) cannot eat high-nitrogen plants or they get sick, so no clover cropping the fields.
How would you heal this?
I see that urine, diluted, provides a good 10:1:4 NPK ratio as fertilizer but with our high potassium I'm nervous. I think I read that potassium keeps plants from accessing nutrients in the soil.
hau Jesse, Let me start with the grazing animals, the grasses you want are mid protein range, so you can use;
•Endophyte-free Fescue (Short Fescue, not long or tall fescue)
Now to heal the land, simply grow the pasture grasses for the pastures, you can add daikon radish, turnip, buckwheat, and hairy vetch as well. These will respond well to breaking up the heavy clay and once you roll the tops down, the grasses will come back and the other items will rot (top and root) thus adding humus and clay crumbling humic acid to your soil, this will start turning it into rich, black soil within a year of starting the program. The animals will poop and pee as you move them around these amendments will be spread around too.
The soil will improve simply by you using it to pasture your animals and rotational grazing will do wonders in a very short time.
As you work the land with the animals and grow the pastures, that K will even out all by itself, don't fret over the soil test, it does not account for the fact that you are using the land for animal raising.
If you are worried about anything let it be the pH, that can be adjusted or you can let the pasture grasses do that for you, either way working the land is the best way to get things headed towards balance, which is where we want everything anyway.
If you would like more specific help, I am a pm away.
Very good observations Thomas, part of the "three sisters" planting setup is that you bury fish first, build a mound over the fish (one for each plant your going to put in right away which is the corn), then you plant in succession, so each comes up at the right time for it.
Many of the people I know who have tried the method plant all the seeds at the same time, this can create problems since the corn, beans and squash all compete for water, nutrients and sunlight at the same time. That is not how companion planting was carried out by the people.
We would plant the corn, it would come up and start growing, once it was about a foot tall we would plant the beans close to the corn stalks.
When the beans were starting to twine around the corn stalks we would plant the squash seeds further out so everything had space to grow as it wanted to grow.
There is not problem at all with only having pairs if that is what works best for you, then that is the way your land wants to be planted.
Squash bugs are a problem and they will attack plants that are not in the family. To get their numbers down you can remove the leaves with eggs and burn them, you can pick the bugs and drown them in soapy water and you can turn the soil in mid winter to get a kill on the hibernating adults.
Changing where you plant each year can help but we have found that the adults just seem to be able to locate the new area, so we do all of the above methods to reduce their numbers.
I'm still looking for the right predators, chickens seem to be a pretty good predator but they tend to decimate the plant at the same time.
You have several options including a shade row cover. Unless you want this bed to always have some shaded areas, a tree would not be the best choice. Then there is the issue of water for both the vegetables and the tree, along with any allopathic issues that might be significant.
James has given a pretty good Hot climate set of ideas too.
I agree with your post Brett, but there are a lot of people who don't follow proper construction methods to the letter when building their own off grid buildings. That can create issues not usually thought of by those who are in the construction trades.
I build walls with two sets of fire blocks but I've seen people build their house with stud walls and no fire blocks at all.
I've also seen undersized lumber used for roofs and floors in owner builds off grid.
When things like that happen, the codes and regulations aren't followed and are thus out the window.
Yes the first thing to do if you want a no hair hide is to slip the hair. I dunk a hide for 15 minutes then scrape, it usually takes me 4-5 dunks to get all the hair off a hide. ( you can check for the correct timing by pulling on a small clump of hair, when ready it will slide right out of the hide)
You need to watch this step closely and not go over on time or temperature since those can set hair instead of letting it slip.
I use a galvanized #2 Wash tub set on a propane burner (like for a turkey fryer, in fact that would make a great set up for tanning hairless hides now that I think about it).
I like Greg's method. I use a slightly slanted wood trough with a small hole and wood "straw" that ends over a heavy plastic pail. I fill the trough with the ashes and set up a hose to drip water into the upper end. I have a piece of old cotton T-shirt covering the down hill hole inside.
Once you get the pail full, you have your lye, just strain it as Greg mentioned. Lye made this way is a very powerful caustic, don't get it splashed on you, it will eat clothing and skin. My last batch came out at 10 molar (Most strong acids are 12 molar, so the lye will be very strong).
Destiny Hagest wrote:I know a lot of people use battery acid, but I want something a little less toxic, particularly since this will be something my son will have contact with when it's done.
My usual go-to is a brain tan, but that's not an option this time around.
You can bark tan with any tree bark that contains tannin, the standard (because of the quantity of tannin) is oak bark.
To make the tanning solution you boil the bark until the water turns dark then strain out the bark pieces and the liquid is your tanning solution.
The other name bark tanning is known by is Vegetable tanning.
Bark tans are used cold for hides you want the hair to remain on.
The hide will need to soak in the solution for about 6 hours, stir it around once an hour or more frequently if you desire.
Pull it out every so often and turn it so all the hide gets exposed to the bark tan solution evenly.
Once it is finished tanning you can re stretch it for drying.
The way you prep the hide is to first soak it in 140 f water, this slips the hair for easier scraping, you will need a scraping frame made of 2x2's that is large enough to hold the hide when stretched.
You will poke holes around the outside of the hide and use strong cordage to lace the hide on the frame or you can use individual pieces to tie it onto the frame, use a square knot so you can untie it for re-soaking in the hot water as you remove the hair. It is better to untie than to cut the cordage since you might need to remove the hide and reinstall it on the frame a few times while scraping the hair from it.
Once you have the hide de-haired you will flip the frame over to scrape off any meat and fats.
Once you have this completed the hide can be salted on the flesh side (rub the salt into the hide well) and folded up for storage.
Do not put a hide that has been salted into any type of plastic bag, the hide will mold and be ruined, just fold it up and if you really want to cover it, use an old sheet or other breathable fabric that is natural fibers.
Check your salted hide every so often and re apply salt if needed.
When you are ready to start tanning a salted hide you need to soak it in cool water to get rid of the salt before you put it into the tanning solution.
If you want raw hide for moccasin soles or for a drum, leave it on the stretcher frame after you have it ready to be salted so it can dry completely.
All hide tanning and prep work is traditionally done outside or in a Tannery building because of the odors.
Oh, every animal has enough brains to tan their own hide.
For a more durable, stiffer leather you can boil oak bark to make a vegetable tanning solution.
When brain tanning it is best to stir the hide in the brain and water mixture between letting it sit periods. l use tepid water to make the brain solution (a potato masher is a good tool for making the mixture, it does a good job of mixing the brains in evenly)
The longer you leave it in the solution, the better the tanning process will work and the faster it will work.
you need a large diameter log with a rounded end, set at an angle of around 45 degrees to get the best stretching once the hide is mostly dry.
If you stretch it while very wet it will be subject to tearing, this stretching is to soften the hide not make it thinner.
I have seen many people ruin their hides until they get the understanding that the hide is only stretched to make it soft.
I have to agree with P Mike on this.
fleece that is used for clothing (that isn't wool) will not only melt and then flash into a gasoline type accelerant but it will gas off many toxic fumes which will be incapacitating to anyone inhaling this "smoke".
While the idea sound good, without having the complete specifications of that material, which includes the hazmat statements, it would be a crap shoot. In a fire event or even if it just got very hot, it could end up a deadly choice.
Some of the fire retardants are also not so great for humans to breathe and these can also become part of the toxic fumes in a fire event.
As you found out, green wood will shrink but for timber framing this is actually a desirable trait since the joints used in timber frame construction will actually get tighter instead of looser as in standard stick construction.
I love the use of repurposed wood.
Find your chapter of the Sierra Club, they should be able to give you a schedule of their events.
Check to see if you have a mycology group for mushroom hunts.
Local Colleges and Universities usually have field trips for classes, you might be able to get a professor that would be willing to let you tag along.
Most states fish and game departments offer testing to hunters so they can find out if their harvested deer is infected. This offered tests also helps the state fish and game determine the spread of the disease. Here in Arkansas the test is free.
French drains are meant to move water down into the pipe and carry excess water away from a foundation, this is their usual reason for being installed.
Your description is not typical French drain routing, can you give more description of how it was constructed? Does it sit in a gravel bed? Is the pipe perf. pipe or is it solid pipe?
For you, einkorn can be seeded as a winter wheat or as a spring wheat, I seed mine in the spring, just after the last frost (around the end of march). To plant as winter wheat you need to get it into the ground by the end of October.
If you have a wheel seeder or a pull behind seeder you want to set the depth at 1/4 inch.
If you are going to hand seed, use a garden rake and pull through the soil in straight lines so you end up with each tine making a 1/4 to 1/2 inch deep furrow, broadcast the seed, turn the rake tines up and lightly drag it to level out the furrows and thus put the seed under the soil surface.
You can water or you can wait for a rain at this point, either will work to get the seeds germinating.
Once the seed sprouts are up they will send their roots deeper into the soil, following the water as it sinks through.
Your springs should be very similar to mine in Arkansas so you probably will not need to add any water while the plants establish themselves.
einkorn takes 100 days to head out usually, wait until they are all the way through the milk stage if you want to harvest early.
I let mine go until the plants are completely brown then I harvest just the heads and lay them out to further dry, once they are dry you can thresh and winnow the grain.
So how does all this relate to What complete soil does? Complete soil allows all plants (trees, shrubs, bushes, and every plant down to moss) to thrive, grow as large as they should and that means they are able to pull in more CO2 and send carbon into their cellular structure with excess going into the soil as exudates, where other organisms can make use of the carbon thus keeping more carbon out of the atmosphere longer. The more large, long living plants that are alive, the better from a CO2 POV for the planet. When we can have large trees along with grasses growing in the same area, we are allowing more CO2 to have the opportunity to become locked (sequestered) away from the atmosphere because the carbon taken in by the grass will end up with some of it going into tree root systems where it becomes part of the wood and that carbon will stay put until the tree dies and begins to rot. In the case of trees like the giant redwood or the Brazilian Rose wood and similar species/ sub species, we can be talking of thousands of years.
In the oceans, the more phytoplankton we can have out in the open oceans the more of that CO2 that was dissolved in the sea water can remain out of the atmosphere. When we look at the combination of quantities, we can determine that we can indeed stop and probably reverse the current free atmosphere CO2, bringing it down to a more in line with our previous habitat quantities and that will create a situation where the CO2 blanket can be thinned out back to a level we can live with. Doing this we would find a lessening of frequency of many of the "natural" disasters we are watching rise in frequency today.
What science is trying to get across is that while we humans have mucked things up by our greedy ways, we can make our travesty at least subside enough as to get back to a more predictable set of circumstances than where we are heading now.
It is also true that we can grow green plants on rock, those plants will follow a natural progression, building soil where there was none. This works and can be observed in our world today, the first succession in such a situation is the growth of lichens, these break down the surface of the rock they grow on, which creates a tiny pocket of mineral dust and as parts of the lichen die and begin to decompose, organic material is added to the new rock dust. We know that soil is mineral dust that contains organic material and we know that these two together support microorganism life forms, add the three together and you have soil.
In parts of the world where the soil is actually dirt, we can add organic material by growing green plants in that dirt and as the little bits of those plants die and decompose we add organic material to the dirt and we will end up with soil. The longer we grow green plants in this medium, the better the soil will become, until it is able to support larger plants and then it will support trees and then more carbon can be taken in and held until the plant/tree dies and begins to decompose. All this is part of the great circle of life, our job is to not stop the succession until it reaches a point where we need it to remain at so we can collect the foods it supplies us with. That state is what Permaculture is about, a state of succession that nature fuels and we reap some benefits from without actually doing any damage to the system. If we do it right, we are not adding to problems but gathering food with little or no inputs and we are not adding to the CO2 levels and we are not taking away from the CO2 levels, we are in balance which is the state of equilibrium the planet would like to be in.
As several have noted, there are other things that come into play when talking about compost quantity such as structure of the medium (dirt, the mineral proponent of soil) if you have a coarse medium then it will hold far more compost with no adverse effect, than a fine medium would be able to handle.
Dirt can be divided into several different levels of structure; coarse (gravels all the way from large stones down to below pea size) these structures have huge voids and thus can hold far more organic material than the next level down in size which is sand, then we go down in size to silt, and from silt we go down to clay.
At each level of coarseness (or lack of coarseness) the amount of organic material that is able to be contained goes down in mass until we end up at clay. The caveat of these structures is the level of coarseness of the organic material, which also plays the role of coarse to fine to super fine and the effects are very similar.
A super fine clay can hold a lot of very coarse organic material and as we move up to coarse gravel medium we go down in size of organic particles the medium is able to hold without becoming water logged.
What we need to be striving for is a balance of particle sizes that allow the best water holding ability and thus air holding ability put against where that blend looses the ability to vacate and pull air back into the soil as the water sinks deeper.
So, for every soil type, there is an upper limit to the amount of organic material it can hold and still be in balance.
One of the most misunderstood things about how this planet works, or used to be one of the most misunderstood, is the role of large swaths of forest in weather patterns.
Large swaths of forest either rain forest or temperate forest, do more than just suck in CO2, they also create large areas of cooler air, help hold moisture in or near the soil at their feet and they act as huge filter systems both airborne particles and ground borne particles, along with part of the water filtration system of the earth. Rain forest is an interesting ecosystem, the soil of a rainforest is not rich soil, it is mostly very poor soil with the sustaining humus coming from the canopy litter that falls to the forest floor. When you cut the trees down, you have destroyed the ability of the soil to replenish the all important nutrient layer.
What happens is the forest is cut down, crops are planted for about 2 years with good results, then the soil is completely depleted of nutrients. Now another section of forest is cut down and the 2 year productive cycle is repeated. Not your best method and in no way sustainable.
If you add in the fact that for the last 100 years we have been finding new medicines at a staggering rate in the rain forest, and that we know maybe 1/10th (if we are lucky) of the plants and animals that call the rainforest home, we are destroying far more than just the forest.
The worst part is that we now have a dead forest floor that can not sustain the tree seeds of those that were cut down. With nothing to stop erosion, the poor soil is washed away and fills in the river beds or travels out to the ocean floor. While there is work being done to try and replant the lost square miles of rainforest, they are not having the success they thought they would have, this is because what used to be, has been utterly destroyed and now needs a lot of remediation just to be able to sustain new seedling trees. This is going on in many areas, but at a far slower rate than the rate of destruction still going on.
With out these huge areas that provide cool air in the equatorial portion of the planet, we feel the effects of other phenomena that occur on the planet, such as the El Nino and La Nina oceanic hot and cool spots that are occurring more and more frequently than at anytime prior to rapid deforestation beginning.
We cut down the largest, oldest trees in all forests because these are the ones worth the most money. These also happen to be the best trees for climate regulation, since they do contain the largest quantity of carbon, which once cut, and processed, actually put back into the atmosphere as much carbon as they still contain as boards. So here we are, adding more CO2 than can be actively recycled, every day, combined with more heat because we lost the cooling effect of much of the rainforest. It is also important to understand that the equatorial zone is not the only area we can find rain forest, the North West region of North America contains a huge coastal rain forest and it too is being cut at an alarming rate, with the resulting loss of cooling effect and soil erosion just like the equatorial zone rainforest destruction problems.
The good news is that we do have people working to get these forests back in place. The bad news is that the greed that created them in the first place, isn't going away and is probably only getting larger.
More good news, we can do small parts of what these missing forests did for our weather with other plants. The bad news, these other plants can not and will not create the cooling effect of the forest canopy.
One of the best plant groups to use for rapid carbon sequestering are the grasses, an acre of grass plants can sequester 4 times as much carbon as an acre of trees, there is one caveat about this use of the grass family, they don't perform long term sequestration of carbon.
So what we need is a way to get the quantity of carbon grass is able to suck up and we then need to be able to make it stay locked up the way trees do. In the grass family bamboo is the one plant able to hold onto to most of the carbon it sequesters the longest period of time.
One of the things we really have to pay attention to is to not try to grow things that would not naturally be able to grow in any area we are remediating in our attempt to save the planet as a habitat for humans and other animals and plants.
If you go look at some of the places where humans have tried to go against nature, they are constantly working to keep nature from taking over, this means poisons and constant disruption to keep natural succession from occurring.
This is not sustainable and does cause more planet contamination, the very things we need to reverse as fast as possible.
It doesn't help much when the politics of the world focus on what is good for the rich, the rich think they are in control, that thinking is what got us to the desperate place we are in now, it will not change unless overall thinking about what success is changes.
Those who govern, need to be replaced on a regular basis, so we can get politicians to realize that politics is not a profession but more like the founding fathers of the USA intended it to be, something you do for love of country, but you then have to go back to the real world for your living.
How smart is it to have people who have not held a job or position outside of government running a country? They have no foundation in the very world they govern, so how do they expect or how do the people expect them to know how to make the right decisions? They have nothing in their experience to guide their thought processes. This means that they are going to listen to those who have the most money, since those are the people they are exposed to that can have an effect on their livelihood, far more than anyone who just votes, the ones who give the money for the campaign are looked at as the ones to be pleased.
Once you allow that level of corruption, it becomes more and more difficult to get the financing to do anything other than what the money men think is best for themselves, they sure aren't going to want to take land out of current use, since that would cut into their profit margins.
You aren't going to get a rancher that has been destroying the Sage Lands for decades so he can raise cows there to suddenly stop destroying the sage lands so he can grow grass for fodder. But it is this sort of thing that sustains the bad practices we need to change now to save the future.
China, one of the largest polluter nations on the planet right now, is mandating a surge in electric vehicles and at the same time a reduction in gasoline powered vehicles. This is what needs to happen in every country, the governments can dictate what the private sector focuses on or loose profit margins.
That makes corporate decisions work for the planet survival instead of against planet survival.
I use an 8 lb. sledge hammer in a large bucket. Break the drywall into pieces that will fit into the size bucket you have and then lift and drop the hammer to break those pieces up to whatever size you desire.
Its a lot like using a mortar and pestile but on a larger scale.
hau Alicia, The best thing to do in my opinion and this has worked very well for me;
Dig the hole 3 times wider than the soil root ball around the tree and only as deep as the soil root ball or just a bit deeper to loosen the soil some there.
Set the tree into the hole, making sure the root ball soil level is even with the ground surface, water the root ball as you are back filling with the removed soil, add compost if you have it so it makes up any loss of soil from rocks (remove all large rocks, any smaller than a soft ball are fine to go back in).
If the soil looks wet when you are finished back filling, add three stakes equidistant in a circle around 2 m from the trunk and loosely tie ropes around the trunk and to each stake. (these are for helping it stay upright in windy conditions, this only needs to be in place for the first year, check often to make sure there is no trunk damage, remove if there are any signs of trunk damage).
I have red clay subsoil and every tree I have was planted down into this red clay, all have thrived quite well by using this planting method.
There is a lot of talk about carbon sequestering being the key to slowing the planet warm up we are experiencing right now.
Some folks are saying we need to plant more trees because that will slow the global warming.
Some say we need to get the excess carbon into the soil and that will slow the global warming.
Some say nothing we can do now will remotely slow the global warming.
It seems to me that this is a type of mass confusion, the first thing we need to be able to do is to grasp what carbon is being talked about, since carbon is literally everywhere and in many forms, when you want to sequester carbon, which form of carbon is being talked about?
Since all living things contain carbon (every living cell, of every living organism contains carbon atoms and molecules) and all living things breathe out carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide), it can be confusing.
Especially if you hear someone talk about burying wood chips to sequester carbon, then hear someone else talk about growing more trees or grasses or and plants to sequester more carbon.
While it is true that doing these things will keep the carbon atoms they contain or breathe in contained for a period of time, some longer than others, these plant materials only deal with carbon that is in the atmosphere or already in the ground.
Where does most of that free, atmospheric carbon come from? what form is it in? where does it go?
The main form of carbon, the one we need to be concerned with, because everything makes it, is carbon dioxide. It is put into the atmosphere with every breath from every living thing, it also comes from fuel combustion so every coal burning power plant, every factory that needs heat, every automobile, all are exhaling CO2, every minute of every day and night. At night plants suck in some of this CO2 and use the O2 to breathe, they use the freed up carbon to build their cells and fuel their inner workings, unfortunately when the sun is up and they are again using photosynthesis to provide their energy needs, they are exhaling CO2, so plants at best are a break even situation for controlling CO2. One of the coolest things about CO2 is that it is water soluble, lakes, rivers, the oceans all can suck up lots of carbon. CO2 that ends up in the oceans makes some remarkable trips, the ocean water sucks up CO2 and cools down, the cold water sinks towards the bottom and takes the CO2 along for the ride, the organisms of the seas make use of some of this carbon but once again they are organisms and that means they exhale CO2 so there is a balance there. As the ocean water continues to cool it sinks deeper, this is part of what creates the oceanic currents, the CO2 that is along for the ride, goes with the flow of these currents, it is the longest rollercoaster ride on planet earth, some of this CO2 will not see daylight again for 3,000 years. Along with cooling currents there are warming currents and when our CO2 is swept up in one of the warming currents, it is headed back to the surface, where it will most likely find its way back into the atmosphere, if nothing is able to suck it up, it travels up and up until it reaches the bottom of the stratosphere, where it has been forming a warming blanket for the last few hundred years. The suns rays strike the earth mother, warming us up so it is comfortable enough for life as we know it to flourish. These Sun rays then bounce back up, heading away, which should be back out into space. The CO2 blanket though is in the way and the thicker it becomes, the harder it is for the sun rays to get back out into space. Instead they hit the blanket and bounce back towards the earth once again, creating more heat and we have the Ta-Da of global warming.
Now we know what is going on, how do we fix it and reduce the amounts of CO2 forming that thermal blanket at the bottom of the stratosphere so we can reverse the effects we are feeling and also stop the icecaps from melting, which raises the level of the seas and takes away the polar bear's ability to feed for as many months as they need to so they don't get around humans because they are hungry and all the other bad things that are happening because of the excess CO2?
The best way is a multiple strategy approach, replant the Rain Forests that have been cut down, reduce the amount of automobiles, trains, planes, ships and "vehicle toys" being used, or in easier terms; reduce the amount of internal combustion engine use and reduce the amount of fuels used to produce electricity, on a daily basis. This is not an easy thing to do, but it will come down to having to do it, if we want to continue life as we currently know it.
I have some ideas and there are others out there that also have some ideas, but will it be enough and do we have enough time left to implement all of them to save the world as we know it?
What ideas do you have? How much time do you think we have to "get er done"?
Gilbert, isn't there a university there? I would imagine that they have a biology department that will have the information you need available. Plants, life cycles, all that should be there, just need to find out which professor teaches the class and ask them.
If they won't help you might find the information at a high school, Science teachers usually have great information and are willing to share their knowledge usually.
The way a distillery or brewer uses grains: Grind the grains, cook the grains to gelatinize the starches, add more water and heat. Pour off the Wort (the liquid is strained from the grains), discard the grains. This is where the yeast is pitched (added to the wort not the grain).
In a distillery there are two methods of mashing, the usual method for "legal" distilling is to make a Wort as above. The other is to mash on the grain, in this method your yeast pitch goes right into the fermenter once the grain has been cooked and the starches gelatinized, Then you add your malt and stir that in, the malt is where the amalaise enzyme (converts startches to sugars) comes from, once the yeast has done its job of eating the sugars and producing alcohol, your mash is ready for the still you strain or filter the liquid from the left over grain into the still for the run. The grain will contain around 1% alcohol that they were unable to remove from the mash.