CORVALLIS, Ore. - Scientists have long struggled to explain how tropical forests can maintain their staggering diversity of trees without having a handful of species take over - or having many other species die out.
The answer, researchers say, lies in the soil found near individual trees, where natural "enemies" of tree species reside. These enemies, including fungi and arthropods, attack and kill many of the seeds and seedlings near the host tree, preventing local recruitment of trees of that same species.
this is a good thing
field work on large agriculture farms does not have the appeal of working on your own permie farm
encouraging people from other countries to come here to basically do slave labor shouldn't be encouraged
teaching people in their own countries to make a living by becoming permies should be the goal
This Native American Nation Maintained Canals In The Face Of Flooding For Over 1000 Years
Archaeological data allow us to consider human actions over extended periods of time in a way that few other sources can. This is particularly true when it comes to studying human resilience in the face of environmental disasters. From approximately A.D. 450-1400, a Native American group known today as the Hohokam overcame a harsh desert environment along with periodic droughts and floods to settle and farm much of modern Arizona. They managed this feat by collectively maintaining an extensive infrastructure of canals with collaborative labor.
The new excavations, however, were able to employ optically stimulated luminescence dating methods that reveal how long-ago quartz sand particles were heated by the fiery desert sun. With this new dating technique, the researchers were able to identify three distinct damaging floods that occurred between A.D. 1000 and 1400.
After each flood the Native American communities that relied upon the canal system to irrigate their fields banded together to repair the canal intakes, clear the channels of accumulated sediments, and repair canal walls and berms. Responding to disasters, however, strains social systems, even in the best of times.
Dr. Scott Johnson, author of Why Did Ancient Civilizations Fail, notes “Throughout human history, from the Egyptians and Romans to the Maya, the more that people modify their surroundings, the more they become dependent on those alterations.” By A.D. 1300, Hohokam populations throughout the Southwest were rising, resulting in increasing strains on natural resources and human social organization. The third flood identified by Desert Archaeology, Inc. brought more drastic consequences for the Native American communities living along the Salt River, with shrinking populations and only minimal repairs to the canals.
Johnson adds that “As the environment changes over time, for both natural and anthropogenic reasons, the more difficult it becomes to maintain those modifications. We see it in the Hohokam canals, Mesopotamian flood agriculture, Maya wetland farming, and our own society's dependence on fossil fuels. We ignore the examples of the failure to adapt throughout the ancient world at our peril.”
A crusty old man walks into a bank and says to the teller at the window, "I want to open a damn checking account."
To which the astonished woman replies, I beg your pardon, sir; I must have misunderstood you. What did you say?"
"Listen up, damn it. I said I want to open a damn checking account right now!"
"I'm very sorry sir, but we do not tolerate
that kind of language in this bank."So saying, the teller leaves the window and goes over to the bank manager to tell him
about her situation.
They both return and the manager asks the old geezer, "What seems to be the problem here?"
"There's no friggin problem, dammit!" the man says; "I just won $50 million bucks in the damn lottery and I want to open
a damn checking account in this damn bank!" "I see," says the manager, "and this bitch is giving you a hard time?
Unsung heroes, animals played vital and varied roles in WWI
PARIS (AP) -- They were messengers, spies and sentinels. They led cavalry charges, carried supplies to the front, comforted wounded soldiers and died by the millions during World War I.
Horses, mules, dogs, pigeons and even a baboon all were a vital — and for decades overlooked — part of the Allied war machine.
An estimated 10 million horses and mules, 100,000 dogs and 200,000 pigeons were enrolled in the war effort, according to Eric Baratay, a French historian specializing in the response of animals to the chaos, fear and smells of death in the mission that man thrust upon them.
World War I marked the start of industrial warfare, with tanks, trucks, aircraft and machine guns in action. But the growing sophistication of the instruments of death couldn't match the dog tasked with finding the wounded, the horses and mules hauling munitions and food or the pigeons serving as telecommunications operators or even eyes, carrying "pigeongrams" or tiny cameras to record German positions.
Horses are ancient warriors, but most of those conscripted during World War I weren't war-ready. They died by the millions, from disease, exhaustion and enemy fire, forcing the French and British armies to turn to America to renew their supply. A veritable industry developed with more than half a million horses and mules shipped by boat to Europe by fall 1917, according to the American Battle Monuments Commission.
So important was the commerce that the Santa Fe Railroad named a station Drage, after British Lt. Col. F.B. Drage, the commander of the British Remount Commission in Lathrop, Missouri, a major stockyard for the future beasts of war.
"So the war business in horses and mules is good," read an article in the December 1915 issue of The Santa Fe Magazine, for employees of the railway system. Good for the farmer, contractor, supplier and railroads, it said, but "not good for the animals."
just a few comments
pawpaws do not seem to like swamps ( the ground doesn't drain)
but will live happily along rivers and streams that periodically flood, but not so severely that it washes away everything
pawpaws are sensitive to UV light when young , but will thrive on as much light as they can get
this can be accomplished by using some greenhouse plastic (gasp!, yes i said that word) which blocks UV light
shade cloth and trees block both UV light and sunlight
so the plastic should give better growth
as an understory tree, pawpaws are adapted to growing in soil of decaying leaves and wood
so mulching the area with leaves, wood chips, rotted stumps, branches, etc is good
and this will also help modify the pH of the soil. a dusting of lime wouldn't hurt
as Crt mentioned, wind can be a problem, especially when the tree is in fruit
a branch with several 1/4 - 1/2 lb fruit hanging at the end can easily snap the branch if the wind catches it the wrong way
this past September,just as my fruit was beginning to ripen, the remnants of hurricane Gordon came thru here with 40+ mph winds
about 1/3 of my crop was dumped on the ground
a word to anyone with more than a few trees
have a plan ahead of time for dealing with:
fruit that ripens all at the same time,
fruit that is easily bruised,
with very little shelf life
Brothers face $450,000 in penalties for removing trees from their property
CANTON TWP., MI -- Brothers Gary and Matt Percy could face nearly half a million dollars in penalties for removing more than 1,400 trees from their property without permission from Canton Township.
The two own a 16-acre property off of Yost Road, east of Belleville Road in Canton Township with the intention of creating a Christmas tree farm on the plot, according to their attorney, Michael J. Pattwell.
The land was filled with "invasive plants like phragmites, buckthorn and autumn olive," he said.
But the township requires land owners to gain permission and promise new tree plantings before cutting down existing forestry, especially for landmark or historic trees.
Canton Township defines 'trees' as 'any woody plant with at least one well-defined stem and having a minimum diameter at breast height of three inches.' The Percy parcel was used historically by a local farmer for dairy pasture, so much of the vegetation on the parcel was invasive buckthorn, scrub brush and dead ash trees."
The Percy brothers believed they were exercising a state and local exemption for farming when they cleared the land, but city officials arrived on-site and signaled immediately their intention to levy big fines in excess of $700,000," Pattwell said. "But that's not what this case is about. We are talking here about a parcel of former pasture land surrounded entirely by industrial activity.
"This case is about misguided overreach. It is unavoidably about whether people who own property are allowed to use it ... We contend the Percy brothers exercised a farming exemption in the local tree removal law to clear the historic pasture behind their business and develop a Christmas tree farm."
Native Americans managed the prairie for better bison hunts
Hunter-gatherer societies may have a bigger ecological impact than we thought.
In the uplands of north-central Montana, on what is today the Blackfeet Reservation, pre-Columbian hunters built mile-long stretches of rock cairns called drivelines, which hunters used to help them funnel buffalo herds from fertile grazing patches called gathering basins, toward the edge of a steep bluff overlooking a tributary of the Two Medicine River. At two different driveline sites, archaeologists have radiocarbon dated bison bones to between 900 and 1650 CE, with the majority of kills happening in the final 250 years of that period. (The sites are on a tributary flowing into the Two Medicine River from the north and another on a different tributary flowing in from the south.)
Each tributary would have had one of the drivelines and gathering basins in its drainage area, so those layers of sediment record what was happening in the gathering basin and along the driveline. At each site, the team, which included members of the Blackfeet Tribe, found between five and eight layers of charcoal residue, a sure sign of nearby prairie fires. These were radiocarbon dated to between 1100 and 1650 CE—the heyday of the bison jumps.
Could we say the human impact on the environment
may be more related to technology than spirituality.
Did the advent of the horse help to change the
way the native Americans interacted with the bison?
this increase in activity could be due to increase mobility.
hunters on foot + fire
hunters on horseback + fire
Beyond the War on Invasive Species: A Permaculture Approach to Ecosystem Restoration Paperback – July 3, 2015
by Tao Orion (Author),
when one wishes a civil discussion with another
the place to start is before there is disagreement
what can we agree on before we disagree?
asking a few questions would be a good place to start
"Do Humans have a place in nature?"
Many Conservationists/environmentalists and nativists feel that nature has suffered since 1492.
any alien introductions by indigenous people , animals, or storms before hand were positive
The belief being that everything was perfect before 1492
This is the view of many environmental departments of universities and governments,
many State, local and federal parks and lands are administrated that way
(let's return the land to it's "natural" state)
many universities have "big agriculture" and tree hugging conservation/environmental departments
at odds with each other. the view is that you either ,"clear cut" or abandon the woodlot,
that is the choice.
So the students (and future government administrators) see these as the two opposing sides
Answer to #1:
NO, (white)humans only harm things
permaculutre philosophy should be directed toward those with the above views.
(unfortunately, permaculture has very little presence on university campuses
usually reserved to those living in yurts in the woods.)
"Humans" , including those evil white ones, can and should
have a place in agriculture, environmental restoration, and evolution's direction
The belief being that nothing is perfect both before and after 1492
(and humans have an important role to play)
Answer to #1:
There is an alternative way
a profitable alternative to big ag that protects and restores the environment
So the first discussion to have with the native tree-huggers
is the positive role that humans and permaculture can have
As to how that could have happened, it's unclear. A likely possibility is the occurrence of a sudden event that caused large-scale environmental trauma and wiped out majority of the Earth's species.
"Viruses, ice ages, successful new competitors, loss of prey — all these may cause periods when the population of an animal drops sharply," explains Jesse Ausubel, director of the Program for the Human Environment.
Such times give rise to sweeping genetic changes across the planet, causing new species to appear. However, the last time such an occurrence took place was 65 million years ago, when an asteroid hit the Earth and killed off the dinosaurs and half of all other species on the planet.
so the question is:
what happened 200,000 +/- yrs ago
to cause this worldwide reset?
do we see anything in the geological record to point a finger at?
the book Bringing Nature Home by University of Delaware professor Doug Tallamy.
I have not read the book but have encountered several speakers who have talked about it
When we present insects from Pennsylvania with plants that evolved on another continent, chances are those insects will be unable to eat them. We used to think this was good. Kill all insects before they eat our plants! But an insect that cannot eat part of a leaf cannot fulfill its role in the food web. We have planted Kousa dogwood, a species from China that supports no insect herbivores, instead of our native flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) that supports 117 species of moths and butterflies alone. In hundreds of thousands of acres we have planted goldenraintree from China instead of one of our beautiful oaks and lost the chance to grow 532 species of caterpillars, all of them nutritious bird food. My research has shown that alien ornamentals support 29 times less biodiversity than do native ornamentals.
Homeowners can do this by planting the borders of their properties with native trees plants such as white oaks (Quercus alba), black willows (Salix nigra), red maples (Acer rubrum), green ashes (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), black walnuts (Juglans nigra), river birches (Betula nigra) and shagbark hickories (Carya ovata), under-planted with woodies like serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis), arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum), hazelnut (Corylus americnus), blueberries (Vaccinium spp) . Our studies have shown that even modest increases in the native plant cover on suburban properties significantly increases the number and species of breeding birds, including birds of conservation concern. As gardeners and stewards of our land, we have never been so empowered to help save biodiversity from extinction, and the need to do so has never been so great. All we need to do is plant native plants!
Massive Genetic Study Reveals 90 Percent Of Earth’s Animals Appeared At The Same Time
Landmark new research that involves analyzing millions of DNA barcodes has debunked much about what we know today about the evolution of species.
In a massive genetic study, senior research associate at the Program for the Human Environment at Rockefeller University Mark Stoeckle and University of Basel geneticist David Thaler discovered that virtually 90 percent of all animals on Earth appeared at right around the same time.
More specifically, they found out that 9 out of 10 animal species on the planet came to being at the same time as humans did some 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
"This conclusion is very surprising," says Thaler, "and I fought against it as hard as I could."
"when their ships come in, too many people are at the train station"
the place where you can be the most help
may not be obvious to you when your focus is too narrow
maybe a refocus is needed
rather than aiming at "goals", look for systems
to build skills for when that lucky break appears.
"lucky breaks" happen often but only those prepared can take advantage of them
computer skills -
organizing or management experience -
heavy equipment operation -
public speaking experience -
a "rolodex" of different contacts -
will all make "lucky breaks" more frequent
you can never tell who might come up to you at a community event where you're doing something.........
I think all we can do is offer people "equality of opportunity"
if we are concerned about the lack of some section of the population in permaculture
demonstrate the value of permaculture to them
and let them make their own decision
here Val is doing a project right where the target audience lives
He's not talking about what most people would consider diversity.
From just the first dozen minutes or so, he's essentially likening his experience in the military, which was a functioning multicultural community, in essence, with failed community in a permacultural context.
I don't know why he's phrased it the way he has, because his message is more along the lines of, "Gee, I wish everyone was on the same permacultural page as I am."
The problem I see is where he's on page, say, thirty-one, and I am on page three-sixty-one. Or vice versa, but you get the point.
welcome to the ulcer factory
you are correct in saying that he isn't talking about the same "diversity" as most people think
what many people think is good is to have as many different types as possible for "diversity"
but planting Bradford pears, asiatic bittersweet, garlic mustard, and multiflora rose or introducing emerald ash borer to your food forest is problematic
because they do not share the same values or follow the same rules (cooperation) as those plants you normally want in your food forest
one could use a food forest as an analogy for a permaculture community
selective diversity working toward a common goal
If you want a "permaculture community" or any other community, there needs to be common goals or you don't have a community
it's not what level the person is on, his/her color , ethnic background, or sexual preference,
but what direction he/she wants to go, do they want to work with the community or against it (the point Clint was making about Paul's podcasts)
It is also something the governments of Sweden, Germany and other European countries should have asked.............
We are being told to eat local and seasonal food, either because other crops have been tranported over long distances, or because they are grown in energy-intensive greenhouses. But it wasn't always like that. From the sixteenth to the twentieth century, urban farmers grew Mediterranean fruits and vegetables as far north as England and the Netherlands, using only renewable energy.
These crops were grown surrounded by massive "fruit walls", which stored the heat from the sun and released it at night, creating a microclimate that could increase the temperature by more than 10°C (18°F). Later, greenhouses built against the fruit walls further improved yields from solar energy alone.
It was only at the very end of the nineteenth century that the greenhouse turned into a fully glazed and artificially heated building where heat is lost almost instantaneously -- the complete opposite of the technology it evolved from.
Pre-Columbian people spread fruit species across Latin America
Humans played an important role in spreading fruit species around Latin America.
Prehistoric humans helped spread edible fruit species across Central and South America, even as they wiped out the megafauna that had done so previously. In the process, we maintained and even expanded the plants’ habitats, increased biodiversity, and engineered ecosystems on two continents. Today, these fruit species could be important in 21st-century efforts to diversify human diets, address food scarcity, and improve agricultural sustainability.
Fruiting plants have evolved a very solid strategy for getting their offspring out into the world. Animals eat the fruit, they drop the seeds, and the next generation of plants takes root, often quite a distance away from their parents. Before about 12,000 years ago, animals like the giant sloth, elephant-like mammals called gomphotheres, and native horses did most of the work of seed dispersal in Latin America.
When those animals died out around the end of the Pleistocene, many of the fruit species they’d helped spread found their ranges contracting. But as the early Holocene climate shifted toward warmer, wetter conditions, humans picked up the slack in a big way for some fruit species.
to paraphrase Sepp
"if you don't have animals, then you have to do the work of animals"
How picky eaters promote genetic diversity
All that human meddling generally increases the genetic diversity of the plants involved. Humans are picky eaters, so we tend to eat fruit that’s appealing in some way, whether because of taste, texture, appearance, amount of actual fruit compared to rind and seeds, or willingness to grow in the right places. Because we typically only drop seeds from fruits we eat, that choosiness gradually selects for different combinations of traits people want. The effect is even more noticeable in domesticated species, where pre-Columbian farmers deliberately bred plants for certain traits.
The result is a lot more diversity in human-modified species than in wild ones.
This is 'nanowood,' an invention that could reduce humanity's carbon footprint
Scientists have designed a heat-insulating material made from wood that is both light and strong and made entirely from tiny, stripped-down wood fibers.
The so-called nanowood, described in the journal Science Advances, could one day be used to make more energy-efficient buildings. It's cheap and biodegradable, too.
"Nature is producing this kind of material," said senior author Liangbing Hu, a materials scientist and engineer at the University of Maryland in College Park.
Managing heat is a major issue in the cities we build. It's hard to keep heat indoors in the winter and keep it outdoors in the summer. The insulating materials currently in use are often very expensive to make, both in terms of money and of energy. They're not usually biodegradable and ultimately contribute to our growing landfills. So scientists have been trying to come up with cheaper, more environmentally friendly options.