Masanobu Fukuoka (1913-2008') was a Japanese farmer who originally studied plant diseases. After having a profound spiritual experience, he decided to become a farmer (as his father was) in order to demonstrate to the world the principle of 'not doing'. He rejected modern farming techniques and developed a set of techniques, based heavily on observation of nature, in order to build fertility without tillage, fertilizer, pesticides or other chemicals. While he had many failures in his early experience, eventually he was able to make a profit from his farm even though he sold below market prices. His father, who was considered one of the finest modern farmers in Japan, nonetheless ran a deficit on the same farm throughout his life. Fukuoka called his method "Do Nothing Farming" (somewhat misleading, since it still involves a lot of work) or "Natural Farming", and was a major influence on the development of Permaculture and Emilia Hazelip's 'synergistic gardening'.