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Predators and protein in your Chicken feed

 
David Bates
Posts: 79
Location: Mountain Grove, Ontario, Canada
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A while ago an old farmer in my area told me a story about "So-And-So", the Pig farmer who used to feed Beavers to his Pigs. Can you imagine?

That got me to thinking. While I am building my chicken coop, I should make the entry flaps the same size as my live traps. Then, at night when all of the Chickens are cozy inside and Mr. Predator comes along he'll say, "Hey! That goofy guy left the Chicken flap open! I'll just squeeze in here and..." *SNAP*

Then I can cook, grind and render Mr. Predator. Add him to the grains I get to increase protein and calcium in my feed.

If you live in a predator rich environment, you may hap make the best of it, eh?
 
Ollie Puddlemaker
Posts: 148
Location: Houston, Tesas
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Using Meat & Bone Meal for Poultry & Livestock Feed - It is more common than most people can imagine, see paper below...

Meat and Bone Meal

• Description and recommendations
• Tables
• References
• Image credits

Description and recommendations

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Common names

Meat and bone meal, meat meal, slaughterhouse by-product meal

Description
Slaughterhouse wastes and dead animals are used to prepare meat and bone meal. Slaughterhouse wastes consist of portions of animals that are not suitable for human consumption, such as carcass trimmings, condemned carcasses, condemned livers, inedible offal (lungs) and bones. Normally hair, hooves and blood are not included. After animals have died their carcasses can be rendered to destroy disease organisms and made also into meat and bone meal.

There can be a wide variation between plants and batches in what goes into the meat and bone meal that is being prepared. If the ash content is high, this indicates that it contains a higher amount of bones and is referred to as meat and bone meal. If the ash content is lower it is referred to as meat meal. Typically when the phosphorus content is above 4.5 % P, then it is called meat and bone meal and when it is below that level it is referred to as meat meal or some other term.

Potential constraints
Proper heat treatment is required to control the spread of BSE and other disease agents such as salmonella. Many of the developed countries of the world has restricted the feeding of meat and bone meal and some only allow meat and bone meal derived from monogastric animals to be fed to ruminant animals and vice versa, like the USA and some of the Western European Countries.

Nutritional attributes
Meat and bone is an excellent source of supplemental protein and has a well-balanced amino acid profile. Digestibility of the protein fraction is normally quite high, ranging from 81 to 87 % (Kellems et al., 199. It is well suited for use in feeding monogastric and provides not only a well-balanced protein source, but also a highly available source of calcium and phosphorus. Excessive heating during processing will reduce the digestibility of the protein fraction. Limiting amino acids for swine when combined with cereal grains are lysine, methionine and threonine and for poultry it is methionine and cystine (Kellems et al., 199. Meals that have higher protein content, often contains blood and isoleucine may become the first limiting amino acid. The protein quality is lower than fish meal or soybean meal for applications in feeding swine or poultry when used to supplement CP in cereal based diets. Processing temperature was higher correlated with lysine availability, as the temperature increased the lysine availability declined (Batterham et al., 1986).

In addition to the protein (amino acids) meat and bone meal is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus and some other minerals (K, Mg, Na, etc.). The ash content of the meat and bone meal normally ranges from 28 to 36 %; calcium is 7 to 10 % and phosphorus 4.5 to 6 %. When using meat and bone meal as the primary supplemental protein source the mineral levels may limit its use in some diet formulations. Meat and bone meal like with other animal products is a good source of Vitamin B-12.

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value
• Meat and bone meal, high-fat
• Meat and bone meal, low-fat

Ruminants
In ruminants it can readily be used to replace most other supplemental protein sources. The CP is less ruminally degradable, and will pass thorough the rumen without being degraded when compared to many other supplemental protein sources. Processing temperature will also effect the availability of the protein fraction. Often pepsin digestibility of the protein fraction is used as a means of determining the extent of processing and availability of the protein fraction. Excessive heating during processing can reduce the digestibility of the CP.

Ruminal escape protein ranged from 41.7 to 51 % of CP in one study (Klemesrud et al., 1997) and 51.3 to 60.8 % in another study (Howie et al., 1996).

In ruminant species response to meat and bone meal used to replace other supplemental protein sources were mixed. Goats performed similarly when meat and bone meal replaced fish meal (Kunjikutty et al., 1992). Dietary nitrogen digestibility was found to be lower when meat and bone meal was used to replace soybean meal in diets for sheep (Lee et al., 1986). Summarization of a 127 trials where ruminally by-pass protein sources, including meat and bone meal, were fed to lactation dairy cattle, only 17 % showed an increase in milk production (Santos et al., 199. Milk production of grazing lactating dairy cattle was increased when supplemented with meat and bone meal (Davison et al., 1990). Methionine is considered to be the limiting amino acid in ruminant applications (Klemesrud et al., 1997).

Pigs
Meat and bone meal when fed to swine lowered performance when replacing soybean meal (Kennedy et al., 1974a; Partanen et al., 199 and other reports observed no differences (Gomes et al., 1982). When it replaced fish meal performance was found to be similar in swine (Mishev et al., 1981). It was found to be superior to feather meal when used in swine ration formulations (Kalous et al., 1981). Feed conversion and nitrogen digestibility was lower for meat and bone meal as compared to soybean meal in feeding applications in swine (Kennedy et al., 1974b). Efficiency of nutrient utilization decreases as dietary level increases in swine (Partanen et al., 1994).

Poultry
When meat and bone meal replaced fish meal in broiler chicks diets growth was similar, but feed conversion was lower (Al-Mulsi, 199. Up to 10 % replacement levels for soybean meal in chick diets showed no differences in gain and feed conversion (Leitgeb et al., 199. In turkeys diets meat and bone meal replaced 20 to 60 % of the soybean meal with no effect on performance (Robaina et al., 1997).

Efficiency of nitrogen utilization as compared to soybean meal was less for meat and bone meal in broilers (Kim et al., 1993).

Fish
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Digestibility of protein was relatively high (83-89 %) and energy digestibility was lower in trout (68-83 %)(Bureau et al., 1999).

Tilapia
Growth was similar in tilapia when meat and bone meal was fed, but feed conversion and the Protein Efficiency Ratio were lower (El-Sayed, 199.
Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis X Morone chrysops)

Crude protein digestibility was similar and energy digestibility was higher than soybean and cottonseed meals in striped bass (Sullivan et al., 1995).

Feed categories
• Animal by-products
• Feeds from animal origin

Source & Citation:
DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/222 Last updated on October 21, 2011, 0:07
 
David Bates
Posts: 79
Location: Mountain Grove, Ontario, Canada
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Ollie,

York post takes me back to the days when I worked for the industrial Pig people. Lots of carefully gathered information, summarized and averaged to help you predict your business well.

Grinding up animals and feeding them to other animals is all the rage here in Canada. There are rules mind you. Many of them have to do with brain tissue as the mental health of our Cows and such is of great importance to us... at least to our international market.

So we can grind up Cows and Sheep and feed them to Chickens and Pigs but we can't grind up any Rudiment brain and feed it to another Rudiment. It's a lot like Leviticus Chapter Eleven except it's The Ministry Of Food Safety And Markets (or something). A friend of mine had to buy a permit to keep horns from Cattle she slaughtered. Very dangerous for food safety and foreign markets, horns.

I like the idea of feeding some bits of some animals I raise to other animals too... *but* only in a form they could not recognize alive. I don't want (for example) a bunch of Geese that start eyeing the Goats.

- David
 
Ollie Puddlemaker
Posts: 148
Location: Houston, Tesas
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David - I understand, we certainly don't want to jeopardize a 'foreign market' with detached 'horns'.

The 'paper' content is not something that I'd actually consider doing too much with, I take it as an option that could be used, if necessary. I really think, it would be my last option, tho'... Surely, I could be resourceful enough to find better quality feed source(s) for my animals, but that's just me. Unless it's for survival, I would rather be keeping inline with the intended diets and not offering foreign feeds, even tho' they may actually work.
 
alex Keenan
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When I was a kid in Alaska our neighbor used to collect fish heads to feed his hogs.
We used to help collect buckets of salmon and halibut heads and the pigs would eat it ALL!!!
 
alex Keenan
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David you said, "I like the idea of feeding some bits of some animals I raise to other animals too... *but* only in a form they could not recognize alive. I don't want (for example) a bunch of Geese that start eyeing the Goats."

However, would it not be great to have a line of chickens one could train to hunt, kill, and eat RACCOON
 
Ollie Puddlemaker
Posts: 148
Location: Houston, Tesas
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alex Keenan wrote:When I was a kid in Alaska our neighbor used to collect fish heads to feed his hogs.
We used to help collect buckets of salmon and halibut heads and the pigs would eat it ALL!!!


I've not heard of that practice, but it does make sense...some have to do with, what they have. I've heard of some pig farmer's disappearing and all that's found of them are their buttons off of their bib overalls. Don't turn you back on them, pigs.

Still not as bad tho', as the farm-raised fish in Viet Nam...here we just have Talapia following the Stripped Bass harvests, kind of a close second tho', to me. Amazing what power the God Almighty dollar has with/over some people.
 
David Bates
Posts: 79
Location: Mountain Grove, Ontario, Canada
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alex Keenan wrote:When I was a kid in Alaska our neighbor used to collect fish heads to feed his hogs.
We used to help collect buckets of salmon and halibut heads and the pigs would eat it ALL!!!


There was some *boring* piece of Saskatchewan fiction they forced me to read at school. In it a local farmer fed his Pigs on Suckers and Carp... but he had to ship them far away because people didn't like the taste. I guess you could grow them on Fish and then finish them on Raccoon -or- something tastier, like Beaver
 
Morgan Morrigan
Posts: 1400
Location: Verde Valley, AZ.
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Those chickens that hunt the racoons, are called dinosaurs.....
 
Chris Kott
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Location: Toronto, Ontario
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No, the big chickens that hunt racoon are called ostrich.

-CK
 
I agree. Here's the link: https://richsoil.com/wood-heat.jsp
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