Design elements for heating and cooling solutions (both) can be solved, generally, by proper passive solar design with an adequate amount of insulated thermal mass.
There is a passive solar house mentioned in a book called "Cheapskates Passive Solar Home Design for DIY Straw Bale or Green Building" on Amazon that is 90% energy efficient located in Colorado that works even at -40 degrees.
This book also mentions things like backup heating systems like masonry stove heaters or rocket mass heaters. However, the house mentioned above is straw bale and adobe, and it's only backup heat (passive solar is primary) is a small woodstove. I think the key is in the design, which this book covers how to do.
You can find that book here: