Dale Hodgins

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since Jul 28, 2011
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Dale Hodgins currently moderates these forums:
I've worked in demolition and salvage, construction, real estate, ... Currently developing bus business and expanding my knowledge on a wide array of subjects related to land development and ecologically sound energy and food production. I'm a hard core skeptic and strong believer in science. Athiest, idealist, pragmatist, inventor, thinker, learner. Developing a grand plan for turning my property into a model of energy and resource efficiency.
Victoria British Columbia-Canada
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Recent posts by Dale Hodgins

I had never heard about this until today. I saw some horrific video and found numerous negative accounts of the practice.

This is cut from Wikipedia. There's lots more. Seems like a horrible practice to me.
.......
Force-feeding procedure
In modern gavage-based foie gras production, force-feeding takes place for between 17 and 30 days before slaughter.[96]

Fear
Geese and ducks show avoidance behaviour (indicating aversion) of the person who feeds them and the feeding procedure.[93][96] Although an EU committee in 1998 reported seeing this aversion, they noted that at the time, there was no "conclusive" scientific evidence on the aversive nature of force-feeding.[93] The AVMA (Animal Welfare Division) when considering foie gras production stated "The relatively new Mulard breed used in foie gras production seems to be more prone than its parent breeds to fear of people".[96]

Injury
An EU committee in 1998[93] reported that there was usually clear evidence of tissue damage in the oesophagus of birds which had been gavage fed, although one 1972 study cited by the report observed no alteration of the oesophageal tissue. More recent scientific studies have shown that the esophagus of birds can be injured or inflamed by gavage feeding.[60][96][97][98]

Stress
After measuring a range of physiological parameters in male Mulard ducks, it was concluded in one study that the acute stress caused by force feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.[99] A similar study on Muscovy ducks found that gavage feeding was related to an increase in panting behaviour and serum corticosterone levels, indicating increased stress attributable to this feeding method.[100]

Housing and husbandry
In France, at the end of 2015, individual cages were prohibited to improve animal welfare. They will be replaced by cages which house 4 to 5 birds.[61]

Behavioural restriction
During the force-feeding period, the birds are kept in individual cages, with wire or plastic mesh floors, or sometimes in small groups on slatted floors. Individual caging restricts movements and behaviours by preventing the birds from standing erect, turning around, or flapping their wings. Birds cannot carry out other natural waterfowl behaviours, such as bathing and swimming.[60] Furthermore, ducks and geese are social animals and individual cages prevent such interactions.[93]

During the force feeding period, when the birds are not being fed, they are sometimes kept in near darkness; this prevents normal investigatory behaviour and results in poor welfare.[93]

Injury
Lesions can occur on the sternum of the birds due to necrosis of the skin. This is observed more frequently in birds reared in cages rather than on the floor. The prevalence is higher in Mulard ducks (40–70%) compared to under 6% in Muscovy ducks. This is due to the larger pectoralis profundus major and minor muscles in Muscovy ducks compared to Mulards.[93] The relatively new Mulard breed used in foie gras production seems more prone to developing lesions in the area of the sternum when kept in small cages, and to bone breakage during transport and slaughter.[96]

Where ducks are fattened in group pens, it has been suggested that the increased effort required to capture and restrain ducks in pens might cause them to experience more stress during force feeding. Injuries and fatalities during transport and slaughter occur in all types of poultry production, however, fattened ducks are more susceptible to conditions such as heat stress.

Enlarged liver
Foie gras production results in the bird's liver being swollen. In some species of ducks, liver size changes seasonally, increasing by as much as 30 to 50%, with more pronounced changes in females. However, foie gras production enlargens the livers up to 10 times their normal size.[60][96] This impairs liver function due to obstructing blood flow, and expands the abdomen making it difficult for the birds to breathe.[96] Death occurs if the force-feeding is continued.[4][93]

Mortality rates
The mortality rate in force-fed birds varies from 2% to 4%, compared with approximately 0.2% in age-matched, non-force-fed drakes.[60] Mortality rates do not differ between the force-feeding period and the previous rearing phase, with both being approximately 2.5%.[61]

1 week ago
I've been looking at electric blankets. There are some that plug into regular household power, and others that are 12 volt. Both use a miniscule amount of power. For me, once the bed is warm, I'm good for the night. All night warmth, for a penny.

Milwaukee and other cordless tool makers, sell 12 volt jackets. That would be awesome when I go to jobs where car camping is necessary. There is a hand warming feature. Great for hands, snacks and keeping electrical tape warm.

The last photo shows me camping in snowy conditions, with no heat at all. Got so hot that I had to remove some blankets.
2 weeks ago
As someone who doesn't like unpaid exercise, or rules, I resist all training.
2 weeks ago
Lack of trees in Kevin's location, is presumably about lack of precipitation. Once established, trees and bushes become snow and dew traps, which effectively raises the precipitation in that area. Rock piles also trap dew and snow. They also protect the soil from direct sunlight. It makes sense to place debris near the fence line, where a natural hedgerow can develop. If posts puncture hardpan, the edge could provide a route for young trees to follow.
2 weeks ago
I think most wars that have been fought, throughout history, could be considered trade wars in some way. I think that applies to the more recent foreign adventures of the United States, if you consider that Osama Bin Ladens main issue was concerned with distribution of wealth from Saudi oil. I'd like Canada to join the OPEC. We're sitting on a lot of oil.

We were told lots of bad things about Muammar Gaddafi. The African League is an organization that Muammar wanted to turn into a sort of OPEC for mineral producing countries. He was the most important member of that group. A cartel like this, could become the most important organization in the world. I believe that is why Muammar Gaddafi is dead.
2 weeks ago
Welcome Ryan. You've come to the right place.
2 weeks ago
I think your land may be a perfect candidate for a mixture of long raised beds, between ponds. Your water temperature will be suitable for carp and hopefully other more valuable fish. Azolla blooms could be used to feed poultry or other animals and to fertilize the hills. You'd get duckweed in the cooler season. There are several types of wild rice that could grow along the margins.
2 weeks ago
A felt cowboy hat is warm in winter, cool in summer. They are good at keeping both sun and rain off of your head. If you get one that fits properly, it looks cool all year. This one cost $0.50 at a yard sale. It disappeared last year.

I was told to smile for this picture, but I don't follow directions generally.
2 weeks ago
I don't think that Walmart has different prices for different stores. They are useful to me, only if I want junk food. I don't buy their clothing, tools, food, or electronics. Low quality is the issue.

I will sometimes buy kitchen and bathroom stuff. If the brand is the same, I'm not willing to pay a penny more, to get it elsewhere.

Walmart probably gets 2% of my retail business. Various organic markets get about 60%, and makers of superior tools get much of the rest.
.........
I find most of my soap, shampoo, spices, cleaning supplies, light bulbs ... in houses that I demolish. Some of it probably came from Walmart. I prefer higher end stuff, but beggars ... Last month an ocean front house produced organic olive oil and 50 spices. Shopping, without the troublesome issue of having to pay.
2 weeks ago
Little hills for early planting. Start things on the raised area. As the land dries, roots will move down and out. You can also do long ridges.
3 weeks ago