I've grown a lot of passion flowers/fruits and have had some fruit in containers. I've only ever had them fruit in containers when outside for the summer, not plants that are grown exclusively indoors. They don't have to be all that big (or heavily fertilized) to set fruit, but plants in small pots simply won't set a lot of fruit.
I've unfortunately never had much success with the standard edible passion fruit, P. edulis. It's never bloomed for me. I've gotten lots of fruit from maypops, P. incarnata, though never in pots. The variety that has most frequently fruited for me in a container is a hybrid, P. "Blue Eyed Susan." Its fruits are often not filled very well with pulp, but the taste is very good.
So, in short, I think it's very possible. Might work well with P. incarnata -- I've simply never felt much need to try because I could overwinter it outdoors. You also have to have at least two different clones or varieties blooming at the same time, in my experience, for pollination.