Wow, there were so many subheadings to choose from for this topic and I could have gone with any of them. I wrote this post with respect to Carob Trees and their association with Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal mutualism. This is something almost missing from all the conventional literature on the subject of what exactly is a host plant. In California where I come from it is only used as a street tree. Yet around the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East it is grown and used quite extensively for it's use as livestock fodder, food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics etc. In fact for those who know of the Biblical account of the Prodigal Son, the young man was so down on his misfortune and starving that he desired to eat the Carob Pods his master fed the swine with. Anyway, just some interesting personal observations of mine long prior to the literature coming out on this symbiosis between Ectomycorrhizae and Ceratonia siliqua or Carob tree. For those who are into Permaculture and living off the grid so to speak, this could be a great forage tree for hot dry climates which are becoming more common these days. For Permaculture folks living in hot outback sites where drought is common and heat resistence is a must, this Carob Tree is a great source for animal feed and fooder. Great storage holding life as well.