Some answers I'm thinking of:
I've come across impressive aforestation projects (afforestt which runs as a business, Jadav Payeng who did what I'm referring to in a rural place, other examples) and am still not sure what the best answer is. Perhaps cuttings and seeds depending on the species, as I know local examples that reforested areas single (or two) handedly using seeds and I think Jadav used cuttings from local plants. Urban vs rural may also influence which method is optimal.
Any input for an aspiring aforester would be appreciated (though I prefer the non-toxic kind). Planting trees is great just a bit costly and clunky to spread 1" diameter ones. Thanks!
One possible advantage of a seed grown tree over a container grown tree (grafted or not) is the possibility of a stronger, more site-adapted root system developing. I'm not talking about disease resistance - carefully selected root stocks will usually have the advantage there - but if the tree is capable of developing a tap root from seed it may be able to grow deeper into the soil to find soil moisture and nutrients. My understanding from reading is that grafted, bareroot and container trees almost never re-develop a strong tap root.
Give it a watch: http://permies.com/t/66077/Guerrilla-Growing-Food-Bearing-Trees#561373