This was an interesting article I found in my localmushroom group. To extrapolate, it is very possible that the amount of fungicides we are putting into the soil decreases mushrooms and spores, and therefore rainfall, which leads to desertification.
“Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops” Abstract: Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. CiItation: Hassett MO, Fischer MWF, Money NP (2015) Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140407. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140407