My husband is a biodynamic ag consultant. Says it looks like root damage from nematodes (due to insufficient beneficial microbes and minerals in the soil.) Also looks like aphids on the stems, attacking the plant because it is weak, and a calcium/phosphate spray will get rid of that. It makes the plant stronger too, as it will absorb through the foliage and any washing off goes into the ground and benefits the roots as well. To make it, mix a high calcium lime with rock phosphate or just get the cal/Phos already mixed. Add 2 tbsp. To a 5 gallon bucket, stir, let it settle out, stir again, let settle out and use the clear water on top in a sprayer. For smaller plants just use a spray bottle. Keep it on hand, works on pests quickly. Also helps ailing plants. Works even better if you can get Humate to mix a little in, tbsp or so. It is sold under name of Foundation. If you can’t get humate, a good, well made compost with substitute as it has active microbes in it.
With appropriate microbes, minerals and organic matter, there is no need for pesticides or herbicides.