Great Question! I was about to ask the same kind of thing. My desire is to find something to plant in a rocky, clay ridden hill behind my house. It has native grasses in it right now, but it's pretty thin. What might I add to the mix back there?
Such a good question. Paul talks about planting crocuses now. They are a bulb that will bloom early and are very beautiful. this website seems to have some decent info on them : http://m.almanac.com/plant/crocuses
this picture is just one of the many varieties, early bloomers!!!
Andy - fall is a great time to sow any native annual seeds.
It might be a bit late now, but you could test sow a few types in small area, and see if they come up!
Best to do while soil is not frozen, maybe rake the surface a bit before sowing, to make grooves for seeds to set in, and then a light tamping of the soil with your foot after you are done sowing.
http://nativeideals.com/ is based in Arlee, MT and have some seed mixes that would be great for your site - they aren't food but they are native! I've had great luck with their flower seeds for starting perennial container plants.