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Cedar Apple Rust, Very Resistant  RSS feed

 
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I live in Sussex County, NJ and Cedar Apple Rust is a major problem here.

About two years ago I planted four apple trees without much forethought or information and they are getting hammered by Cedar Apple Rust every year.   I started reading about apple trees and man are they technical.  I wanted to start planting an orchard so I would have early, mid, late and very late bloomers to pump up my pollinators.  it looks like almost all of the Very Resistant Varieties are early/mid.  Also, trying to get Very Resistant CDR trees that are in the same flower group leaves you with a really limited selection of trees.  I have read the Arkansas paper on CDR but it seems to be out of date with all the new varieties coming out.

The Liberty apple seems to be the stand out of the bunch but it's a triploid so it needs two other trees that will also pollinate each other. Most of the apples that are CDR, very resistant are not apple trees I would pick based on taste tests.


Does anyone know of updated lists of CDR Very Resistant Trees or have any experience with planting the varieties that are just Resistant? 

Have you found a group of resistant trees that you are happy with? I'm in Zone 6

Is rootstock affected by cedar apple rust as I would like to just graft a resistant variety to the trees in place?

Regards, Scott



 
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The one grafted apple I have, that was supposed to be highly rust resistant has the worst case of it in our apple area of the orchard.

I have Arkansas Black Apple trees for our main apple crop, I have found that making sure there are enough trace minerals in the soil over the year is the best prevention method.
The trees fare far better than I had hoped, even though they still get some rust struck leaves, the trees retain their fruit and most of the leaves aren't hit.
I expect this to continue to get better every year since I am continuing to add Sea-90 on a yearly basis. It contains 95 minerals and that is the only amendment I have used since these trees were planted.

I am in the middle of a five year study on the effects of high mineral content of the soil for Arkansas Black Apples and when  it is completed, I'll post some of the results here.

Redhawk

 
Scott Foster
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Bryant RedHawk wrote:The one grafted apple I have, that was supposed to be highly rust resistant has the worst case of it in our apple area of the orchard.

I have Arkansas Black Apple trees for our main apple crop, I have found that making sure there are enough trace minerals in the soil over the year is the best prevention method.
The trees fare far better than I had hoped, even though they still get some rust struck leaves, the trees retain their fruit and most of the leaves aren't hit.
I expect this to continue to get better every year since I am continuing to add Sea-90 on a yearly basis. It contains 95 minerals and that is the only amendment I have used since these trees were planted.

I am in the middle of a five year study on the effects of high mineral content of the soil for Arkansas Black Apples and when  it is completed, I'll post some of the results here.

Redhawk



Thanks for the response Redhawk.   I planted Comfrey around the apples hoping that will help, but too early to tell.  I'm really in the first year of my food forest so I haven't spent much time doing any tweaking just infrastructure, planting and throwing chips.  I will check out the sea 90.  Good luck with your study, look forward to the results. 
 
Bryant RedHawk
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I love comfrey as a companion plant, the only problem with it is that if the minerals aren't there to start with, the comfrey can't create the missing minerals.
This is the same problem all "mineral Mining plants" have.

Redhawk
 
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I have a Sundance apple that is in really bad soil, heavy clay and doesn't drain well in the winter, and it still does pretty well against the rust.  It is a patented variety so that will restrict your propagation options.
 
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We have a plague of cedar apple rust here -- it skips from junipers to apples and back every other year. Fungicide is a waste of effort. But my death-warmed-over apple trees don't get it, despite lots of exposure and decades of neglect (one reason I don't take them out and start over). Neighbor's carefully tended trees -- some get it, some don't. Read up on it and apparently resistance is genetic, hence varietal.
 
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Bryant,

this is exciting. I have not even bothered planting apples due to the infestation around here. Even the serviceberries and medlars are showing signs of it. I have been reading the Holistic Orchard and he has a very specific regimen of spraying during the susceptible period, which is meant to cover fungal and some parasitic higher-order issues, but I think the cheap solution is to concentrate on the minerals and limit the cedars, since it must be somewhat dose dependent. I know how you feel about cedars but they are a mass of goo in the spring and I am working on propagating the few that seem to be resistant and removing the others. They are superior bird cover in the winter so I do this with sadness, but the holly is going to be the evergreen bird habitat until I can get some resistant cedars. The good news is I have two cedars that show no evidence of rust and the rest are just sickly, and they grow so fast here I should be able to select progeny in 3-4 years.

I promise when I get some promising stock I will share. Of course this isn't done in sterile conditions and I will be lucky if 10% are resistant, but that beats the current <1%.
 
Rez Zircon
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My tree type junipers are immune, as is my giant spreading juniper (3 feet tall and 30 feet across on a single trunk). But the spreading ground-creeper type is a mass of orange goo every time it rains.
 
Tj Jefferson
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What climate are you located in? This resistant juniper would be highly valued by many of us, but it is a big genus. Mine are eastern red cedar, and I have some crappy shrub junipers that don't seem to be affected, but the ecological niche the junipers fill here is frontier and then understory tree. I would be interested in other species that might be effective.
 
Scott Foster
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Rez Zircon wrote:We have a plague of cedar apple rust here -- it skips from junipers to apples and back every other year. Fungicide is a waste of effort. But my death-warmed-over apple trees don't get it, despite lots of exposure and decades of neglect (one reason I don't take them out and start over). Neighbor's carefully tended trees -- some get it, some don't. Read up on it and apparently, resistance is genetic, hence varietal.


Do you know what kind of apple trees you have?   The death warmed over ones?  Bwa Ha ha.

I have a cedar tree in my yard that is part of the problem, the bigger problem is the distance you need to remove the cedars to break the chain.  

There are so many salt cedars along the roads here, there is no way to take the cedar out of the equation.

There are some resistant apple types which I plan on trying next year.   I planted a crab apple and it's getting it too.   The healthiest looking fruit tree I have in my space is an Apricot...kind of funny as they are supposed to be troublesome.   I'm not positive but I think my pear trees are now being affected by the cedar apple rust.   I didn't think they could get it.
 
Tj Jefferson
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Scott, there are three major rusts in the eastern seaboard and many more characterized. They all share cedar as the overwintering and spring sporulating host. Around here the cedar-hawthorn rust is the big player, and it affects apples, pears, and pretty much anything related. Apricots are prunus, which is not a close relative of the malus/pyrus family. They get black knot around here but that is more treatable (you just have to burn affected limbs). The others are cedar-apple (orange stress-ball looking goop) and cedar-quince rust, which is hard to characterize. We have all three around here, but mostly the apple and hawthorn rusts.

Unfortunately the only way to treat all three is source control of the susceptible cedars, generally the deciduous summer hosts don't harbor the disease (I think in rare cases there can be cankers on quince or something). I have tried foliar spraying as recommended by Holistic Orchard, but the damn deer ate the plants so I don't know if it worked. Maybe I will get some information next year. 
 
Scott Foster
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TJ I know for sure I have the alien/orange goop ball.  It freaked me out.   So what did orchardists do in the revolutionary era.   Is this a bio-diversity issue?  Maybe we should start planting from seed again. 
 
Bryant RedHawk
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The best way to control cedar rust; 1. remove all cedars (junipers) from as close as 2500 feet. 2. inspect all cedars in spring for the tell tale orange mass that is the rust spores, remove those branches and dispose of them either by contained fire (in a barrel with a lid) or bagging and taking them to the dump to be buried.
3. fungicide sprays usually work but you still have to remove the infected branches and dispose of them.

T.J. I have had to take to removing some of our sacred cedars and will have to remove several more to control the rust issues we are having.
For me, this requires I do offerings and prayers for the tree spirit then I must make use of all of the tree which gave its life for my needs.
The trunks make great fence posts, gates, even furniture and flutes. ( I make a lot of cedar flutes)

Redhawk
 
Rez Zircon
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Tj Jefferson wrote:What climate are you located in? This resistant juniper would be highly valued by many of us, but it is a big genus. Mine are eastern red cedar, and I have some crappy shrub junipers that don't seem to be affected, but the ecological niche the junipers fill here is frontier and then understory tree. I would be interested in other species that might be effective.


Montana. I think the trees are Rocky Mountain Juniper.
http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=PGCUP050C0
They throw seeds all the time, tho few come up.

The one that's 3 feet tall and 30 feet wide, I haven't seen produce any seeds. Can't find a variety that looks like it. It doesn't appear to have ever been shaped (other than being discouraged from eating the house), but rather just grew how it is (shows no inclination toward getting tall).

The infested one is some sort of creeping juniper, and as readily as it roots, I'm thinking some of these other kinds might root too. The creeper has actually invaded the grass and now gets mowed along with it (tho have found it can be shooed back where it belongs with dicamba).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juniperus_horizontalis

Another one by the front porch is in poor shape, but no rust on it either. It might be a volunteer hybrid of the tree x the creeper, as it can't make up its mind how it wants to grow and looks like a bonsai gone wrong.

From what my neighbors have said the whole area has rust, so little point in taking out individual plants.
 
Tj Jefferson
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Scott Foster wrote:TJ I know for sure I have the alien/orange goop ball.  It freaked me out.   So what did orchardists do in the revolutionary era.   Is this a bio-diversity issue?  Maybe we should start planting from seed again. 


Sorry for the delay. I assume the cedars were so desirable for fencing/construction they were logged! Planting from seed will be very unlikely to produce resistance in apples, it is not a plant nutrition issue (mostly). The odds of having a resistant apple from seed absent a breeding program are unfortunately quite fantastically low.

It seems to me that you have to graft resistant varieties, or just accept high losses from seeded apples (maybe you can get better odds from someone who has an apple tree that exhibits good partial resistance). The goodish news is that the cedar apple rust (which sounds like your rust) does not generally affect pears! So grow those and enjoy!

A good source of  info about the different rusts, they do have distinctive appearances, which are on the same page. 
 
Tj Jefferson
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Rez Zircon wrote:
Montana. I think the trees are Rocky Mountain Juniper.
http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=PGCUP050C0
They throw seeds all the time, tho few come up.




I doubt that one would do well out here in the east but I would be tempted to try. If you ever get seeds from it I would absolutely try it! Thanks for the info!
 
Rez Zircon
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Tj Jefferson wrote:
Rez Zircon wrote:
Montana. I think the trees are Rocky Mountain Juniper.


I doubt that one would do well out here in the east but I would be tempted to try. If you ever get seeds from it I would absolutely try it! Thanks for the info!


These throw piles of fruit, tho from what I read they often produce undeveloped seeds, so I'd have to check. Meanwhile...
https://www.kansasforests.org/conservation_trees/products/evergreens/rockymountain.html
https://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/juniperus/scopulorum.htm

Looks like ours is cedar-hawthorne rust. It seldom kills the branch, and isn't real shaggy when fruiting.
 
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