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Shade Tolerant Edible Cooperative Community Compendium bit.ly/edibleshade  RSS feed

 
William Wallace
Posts: 41
Location: Western North Carolina - Zone 7B stoney
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This is a list of edibles that can tolerate shade.
Heavy and partial shade will be separated.
Please offer additions and revisions.
Changes will be made to this original post.


This list is not verified, and may have errors.
Info was gathered from dozens of sources.
There is no guarantee these will grow for you.
Each area and climate is different.


Superlink to this article:
bit.ly/edibleshade

To Do List:
notate scientific names of each
notate if is generally annual or perennial
notate if shade affects fruiting or palatability




Heavy shade

Alpine Strawberry (Fragaria vesca 'Semperflorens')
Arum lily (Arum italicum)
Baneberry aka Bugbane (Actae and Cimicfuga)
Barrenwort (Epimedium)
Bellwort (Uvularia)
Blackberries and other brambles berries
Bladder fern (Cystopteris)
Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictoides)
Bowman's root (Gillenia trifoliata and Porteranthus trifoliatus)
Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)
Celadine Poppy (Stylophorum)
Chameleon (houttuynia cordata)
Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium)
Creeping Phlox (Phlox stolonifera)
Crested Iris (Iris cristata)
Cucumber (perennial Coccinia grandis 'Sterile Perennial')
Fairy Bells (Disporum)
False Solomon's Seal (Smilacina)
Ferm Christmas (Polystichum acrostichoides)
Fern Cinnamon (Osmunda cinnamomea)
Fern Fiddlehead
Fern Interrupted (Osmunda claytoniana)
Fern Maidenhair (Adiantum)
Fern Royal (Osmunda regalis)
Fern Wood (Dryopteris)
Foamflower (Tiarella)
Fuchsia (Fuchsia)
Giant bellflower (campanula latifolia)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Ginseng (Panax)
Goatsbeard (Aruncus)
Green and Gold (Chrysogonum virginianum)
Groundnut (Apios americana) - trelles
Hosta (Hosta)
Jack in the Pulpit (Arisaema)
Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis)
Liverwort (Hepatica)
Lungort (Pulmonaria)
Matrimony vine (Lycium barbarum) – goji berries and leaves
Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum)
Mushrooms
Periwinkle (Vinca minor)
Pigsqueak (Bergenia)
Red shiso (perilla frutescens
Serviceberries
Solomon's seal (Polygonatum biflorum)
Spotted Dead Nettle (Lamium maculatum)
Spurge (Pachysandra)
Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum)
Toad Lily (Tricyrtis)
Trillium (Trillium)
Turtlehead (Chelone)
Violet Canada (Viola canadensis)
Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia virginica)
Wasabi (Wasabi japonica or Eutrema japonica)
Wild ginger (Asarum canadense)
Woodland Phlox (Phlox divaricata)
Yellow Archangel (Lamiastrum galeobdolon)



Partial shade – Perennials
American Barrenwort (Vancouveria hexandra)
Amur Adonis (Adonis amurensis)
Arrowhead (Sagittaria)
Aster Flat Top )Aster umbellatus and Doellingeria umbellata)
Aster Heart-leaved (Aster cordifolius and Symphotrichum cordifolium)
Aster Large-leaved (Aster macrophyllus and Eurybia macrophylla)
Aster New England (Aster novae-angliae and Symphyotricum novae-angliae)
Aster Swamp (Aseter puniceus and Symphotrichum puniceum
Aster White Wood (Aster divaricatus and Eurybia divaricata)
Autumn Crocus (Colchicum)
Barren Strawberry (Waldsteinia and Geum)
Bear's Britches, Common (Acanthus mollis)
Bee balm (Monarda didyma)
Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii)
Bigroot Cranesbill  (Geranium macrorrhizum)
Bishop's weed (Aegopodium podagraria 'Variagatum') – very aggressive
Blue Joint Grass (Calamagrostis canadensis)
Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)
Bluestem Goldenrod (Solidago caesia)
Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)
Bottlebrush Grass (Hysterix patula and Elymus hystrix)
Buttercup (Ranunculus acris)
Canada Rush (Juncus effusus)
Canadian Burner (Sanguisorba canadensis)
Cardinal Flower (Lobelia cardinalis)
Closed Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)
Clustered Bellflower (Campanula glomerata)
Corsican Pearlwort (Sagina subulata)
Cow Parsnip (Heracleum)
Crested Iris (Iris cristata)
Crinkled Hairgrass (Deschampsia flexuosa)
Coral Bell (Heuchera)
Crowsfoot Stonecrop (Sedum ternatum)
Culver's Root (Veronicastrum)
Cupplant (Silphium perfoliatum)
Cutleaf Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia laciniata)
Daylily (Hermerocallis fulva, lilioasphodelus, minor)
Dropwort (Filipendula vulgaris)
Fall-blooming Reed Grass (Calamagrostis brachytricha)
False Dragonhead (Physostegia virginiana)
False Forget Me Not (Burnnera macrophylla)
False Hellebore (Veratrum)
Fawn Lily (Erythronium)
Fern Hay-scented (Dennstaedtia punctilobula)
Fern Male (Dryopteris filix-mas)
Fern Marginal Wood (Dryopteris marginalis)
Fern Sensitive (Onoclea sensibilis)
Fleece Flower (Persicaria)
Garden Heliotrope (Valeriana officinalis)
Globe Flower (Trollius)
Golden Alexander (Zizia aurea)
Golden Ragwort (Packera aurea and Senecia aureus)
Goldenrod Grass-leaved  (Solidago graminifolia and Euthamia gramnifolia)
Goldenrod Ohio (Solidago ohioensis and Oligoneoron ohioense)
Goldenrod Riddell's (Solidago riddellii and Oligoneoron riddellii)
Goldenrod Swamp (Solidago patula)
Gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum and missouriense) - lowered production in shade
Grapeleaf Anemone (Anemone tomentosa 'Robustissima')
Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica)
Heart-leaved Skullcap (Sedum ternatum)
Helen's Flower (Helenium)
Japanese coltsfoot aka fuki (Petasites japonicus)
Hardy banana (Musa basjoo)
Hardy Cyclamen (Cyclamen)
Hellebore (Helleborus)
Hoja santa (Piper auritum)
Iris Blue Flag (Iris versicolor)
Iris Lousisian (Iris)
Iris Rabbit-ear  (Iris laevigata)
Iris Southern Blue Flag (Iris virginica var shrevei)
Ironweed (Vernonia)
Japanese Anemone (Anemone x hybrida)
Large-flowered Comfrey (Symphytum grandiflorum)
Lily Michigan (Lilium michiganense)
Lily Turk's Cap (Lilium superbum)
Lily Turf (Liriope)
Lizard Tail (Saurus cernuus)
Loosestrife (Lysimachia)
Lovage (Levisticum officinale)
Maiden Grass (Miscanthus)
Marsh Cinquefoil (Potentilla paulstris)
Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris)
Masterwort (Astrantia)
Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria)
Mist Flower ( Eupatorium coelestinum and Conoclinium coelstinum)
Moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia)
Monkey Flower (Mimulus ringens)
Mountain Mint (Pycanthemum virginianum)
Mourning Widow (Geranium phaeum)
Northern Sea Oats (Chasmanthium latifolium) – short lived
Pale Indian Plantain (Cacalia atriplicifolia and Arnoglossum atriplicifolium)
Pickerel Weed (Pontederia cordata)
Prairie Dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum)
Purple-stem Angelica (Angelica atropupurea)
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum)
Rose Mallow (Hibiscus)
Rosinweed (Silphium integrifolium)
Rue Early Meadow (Thalictrum dioicum)
Rue Tall Meadow (Thalictrum dasycarpum)
Scented Oxeye (Telekia speciosa and Buphthalmum speciosum)
Sedge Appalachian (Carex appalachica)
Sedge Black-flowering )Carex nigra)
Sedge Blue (Carex flacca)
Sedge Bristly (Carex comosa)
Sedge Fox (Carex vulpinoidea)
Sedge Lake (Carex lacustris)
Sedge Palm (Carex muskingumensis)
Sedge Pennsylvania (Carex pensylvanica)
Sedge Plantain-leaved (Carex plantaginea)
Sedge Porcupine (Carex hystericina)
Skullcap (Scutellaria)
Snowdrop (Galanthus)
Snowy Woodrush (Luzula nivea)
Soft Stemmed Bullrush (Scirpus validus and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani)
Sorrel, French and variegated buckler (Rumex scutatus)
Spiderwort (Tradescantia)
Spike Gayfeather (Liatris spicata)
stinging nettle (Urtica dioicia)
Sunflower Sawtooth (Helianthus grosseserratus)
Sunflower Oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides)
Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
Swamp Saxifrage (Saxifraga pensylvanica)
Sweet Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia subtomentosa)
Sweet Cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
Sweet Flag (Acorus)
Sweet Joe-pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum and Eutrochium purpureum)
Sylvan Goatsbeard (Aruncus dioicus)
Tall Tickseed (Coreopsis tripteris)
Tufted Hair Grass (Deschampsia cespitosa)
Umbrella Plant (Darmera peltata)
Variegated Manna Grass (Glyceria maxima 'Variegata'_
Violet Downy Yellow (Violat pubescens)
Violet Early Blue (Viola palmata)
Violet Marsh Blue (Viola obliqua)
Wandflower (Galax urecolata)
White False Indiago (Baptisia leucantha)
White Snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum and Ageratina altissima)
Wild Calla (Calla palustris)
Wild Cranesbill (Geranium maculatum)
Wild Senna (Senna hebecarpa)
Winter Aconite (Eranthis)
Woodland Sunflower (Helianthus Strumosus)
Wool Grass (Scirpus cyperinus)
Yellow Coneflower (Ratibida pinnata)
Yellow Fumewort (Corydalis lutea)
Yellow Skunk Cabbage (Lysichiton)



Partial shade - (needs checked if perennial or annual)
Akebia
Aleroot
American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
American Pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides)
Angelica (Angelica archangelica gigas atropurpurea)
Anise (Pimpinella anisum)
Arctic Beauty kiwi (Actinidia kolomikta)
Arctic Raspberry
Arugula
Asparagus
Basil
Basillycum
Beans (shelling or dried beans) all Phaseolus vulgaris
Beans (pole green beans)
Beech
Beets
Bergamot (Monarda)
Black raspberries
Blackhaw
Blue banana bean
Blueberries
Bok choi
Borage
Brahmi
Broccoli
Brussel Sprouts
Buffalo berry (Shepherdia canadensis)
Bunchberry
Bunya Bunya
Burdock
Bush Beans
Cabbage
Calendula
California Bay Laurel
Cannas
Caraway
Carrots
Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
Caucasian Spinach
Cauliflower
Calendula
Celeriac
Celery
Chamomile (Matricaria)
Chard
Cherry Cornelian (Cornus mas)
Cherry Pie
Chinese Bramble
Chinese privet
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)
Chocolate vine (Akebia quinata)
Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia, melancarpa, 'Nero', 'Viking')
Collards
Columbine
Coriander
Corn salad
Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita)
Creeping Bramble
Cress Garden
Cucumbers
Currants (Ribes cereum, lacustre, nigrum, odoratum, sanguineum)
Devil's club
Dill (Anethum gravelolens)
Dogwood Creeping
Dogwood Kousa (Cornus kousa)
Dwarf chestnut
Eleagnus x ebbingei
Elder blue or black
Elderberry
Emerald Creeper
Endive
English Laurel
Evergreen huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum)
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
Fenugreek
Feverfew
Fig (Ficus carica)
Filbert aka hazelnut (Corylus avellana and maxima)
Flax New Zealand
Flowering quince
Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
Galangal
Garlic
Garlic Chives
Garlic Mustard
Germander
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Ginger mioga (Zingiber mioga)
Ginkgo
Golden Saxifrage
Good King Henry
Gotu Kola
Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora)
Grapes
Greater Celadine
Green Onion
Ground Elder
Hardy clumpers bamoboo (Fargesia)
Hardy kiwi (actinidia arguta)
Hazelnut Californian
Hedge Mustard
Herb Robert
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
Highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum, 'Phillips', 'Wentworth')
Himalayan Bramble
Himalayan Damarru
Hog Peanut
Holy Grass Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)
Honeyberry
Hops (humulus lupulus) and golden hops
Horseradish
Hyssop
Japanese Coltsfoot
Japanese Plums
Japanese wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius)
Juneberries
Jupiter's Beard
Kale
King's Spear
Kohlrabi
Lady's Mantle
Lady's Smock
Lamb's lettuce
Lamb's quarters
Land Cress
Lavender
Leeks
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)
Lemon Verbena
Lesser Switchwort
Lettuce
Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis)
Linden (Tilia cordata)
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus)
Lovage (Levisitcum officinale)
Magnolia Vine
Malabar Spinach
Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum)
Marjoram
Maryland Dittany Stone Mint (Cunila origanoides)
Milk Thistle
Miner's lettuce
Mint (Mentha)
Minutina
Mitsuba (Cryptotaenia japonica)
Mizuna
Mock Strawberry
Moss (Thuidium, Leucobryum, Polytricum, Dicranum etc)
Mountain pepper
Mountain huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum)
Mulberries
Mushroom Plant
Musk mallow (Malva moschta)
Mustard greens
Musk Geranium (Geranium macrorhizum)
Musk strawberry (Fragaria moschata)
Nasturtium
Nepalese Raspberry
Old Man's beard
Onions
Oregano Golden (Aureum)
Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa and aquifolium)
Pak Choi
Parsley (Petroselinum neapolitanum and crispum)
Parsnip
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
Peas (bush)
Peas (pole) (Pisum sativum)
Peppermint
Peppers
Pie cherry (Prunus cerasus)
Plantain
Plantain Downy Rattlesnake (Goodyera pubescens)
Plum yew
Plumbago – not edible
Poet's jasmine (Jasminum officinale 'Affinis')
Potatoes
Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum simulans)
Primrose (primula veris and vulgaris)
Pumpkin
Quinoa
Raddichchio
Radishes
Rampion
Ramps
Raspberry
Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium)
Red Shiso (Perilla futescens)
Redwood sorrel (Oxalis oregana)'
Roman chamomile (Chamaemilum nobile)
Rosemary
Roses (especialy Rosa rugosa)
Rubharb
Rutabaga
Sage
Salad Burnet (Poterium sanguisorba)
Salal (Gaultheria shallon)
Salmonberry
Salsify
Sausage Vine
Scallions
Scurvy Weed (Commelina cyanea)
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) spread danger
Service Tree
Serviceberry (Amelanchier)
Shiso aka Red perilla (Perilla frutescens)
Siberian Purslane
Silver vine (Actinidia polygama)
Silver vine kiwi
Silverberry (Elaeagnus commutata) spread danger
Spicebush aka Appalachian allspice (Linera benzoin)
Spinach
Squash
Stauntonia
Strawberry
Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
Summer Squash
Sweet aslyssum
Sweet bay (Laurus nobilis)
Sweet Coltsfoot
Sweet Potatoes
Taro
Tarragon
Tatsoi
Thimbleberry (Timbleberry)
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Tomatillos
Tomatoes (Cherry tomatoes best in shade)
Turmeric
Turnip
Upland Cress
Valerian
Violet Labrador (Viola labradorica)
Warrigal Greens (Tetragonia tetragonoides)
Watercress
Waterleaf
Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
Wild Garlic
Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense)
Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)
Woodruff
Wood Betony
Yams
 
Wes Hunter
Posts: 393
Location: Missouri Ozarks
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Gooseberries are perennial.  There are multiple species, so you might want to adjust the Latin on that one. The ones we have growing in our woodlot are Missouri Gooseberry (Ribes missouriense).  They'll grow in full or partial shade, but are much less productive in full shade.
 
William Wallace
Posts: 41
Location: Western North Carolina - Zone 7B stoney
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Wes, thank you for those suggestions.  I have moved Gooseberry to Perrenial Partial Shade, and have added your species.  I have also added a few more species, as well as filling out some more scientific names.  I feel there are many more shade tolerant herbs that can be listed. 
 
Bryant RedHawk
garden master
Posts: 3161
Location: Vilonia, Arkansas - Zone 7B/8A stoney, sandy loam soil pH 6.5
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hau William great project you have started here.

I notice that several of the items listed in Deep Shade actually should be in in partial shade simply because that is where they will produce their best fruit.
Just because something like a Saskatoon, Blackberry, Alpine strawberry, Ginseng, Wasabi and wild Ginger can grow in deep shade (no direct sunlight hits the plant) doesn't mean that is the best place for them.
Wasabi needs partial sun and flowing water to grow best, Saskatoon (serviceberry), Blackberry, All the strawberry species, Ginseng and Wild Ginger all do best in the transition space from meadow to forest, this is an area of partial shade/ partial sun.
These plants will produce far less fruit in deep shade, if any. Grapes can survive in deep shade but they produce bitter, small sized fruits in those conditions.
Paw Paw trees must start out in deep shade, then they have to be able to reach for some "dappled shade" or part shade and in order for them to fruit they have to be able to get a minimum of 4 hours of sunlight.

Redhawk

 
Deb Rebel
gardener
Posts: 1802
Location: Zone 6b
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This post is an attempt to fix something, and show a cool picture of a pawpaw's fruit.
paw-paw-fruits.jpg
[Thumbnail for paw-paw-fruits.jpg]
Shade tolerant PawPaw's
 
William Wallace
Posts: 41
Location: Western North Carolina - Zone 7B stoney
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Great point about notating which produce better fruit in only partial shade.  I feel that it's also worthwhile to discuss the two different shade levels.  For simplicity, I was thinking that the Heavy Shade gets around 3 hours of sunlight each day. The Partial Shade is then around 3 hours of shade each day.  These are rough numbers, and are really variant with the climates and the microecology of individual planting locations.  None of these are guaranteed anywhere, but a suggestion of plants to test or where to get ideas from. 

The terminology that is used for these plantings is quite vague.  There are many different levels of light let in by dappled overhead in different types of the day.  I do think this is where we can build a compendium of people's experiences with each edible in their own plantings.  I know that some have better production due to partial shade.  Take chives for example.  They do not bloom as much, and so can be harvested more often when planted in partial shade.  I also think that shade improves the flavor of many vegetables, due to stress free periods of growing. 

This could become a very difficult task to manage, if we were to try and include every bit of information about each plant.  I feel a more prudent direction is to gather reports of successful shade plantings of a species, along with report on how it grew.  Once proved feasible, it is then worthwhile for others to test it. 

We will likely need to create a category to move edibles that are questionable into.  These are the ones where there's doubt of shade tolerance.  I also feel there should be some attention and notation if a species is able to go to seed in either heavy or partial shade.  Growing seed of some crops in dappled environment could be a way to maximize optimal land for production growing.  We also must caution ourselves from classifying something simply upon it's berry or fruit production.  There are many plants that produce higher quality of new growth in the shade.  Of course, if a plant produces zero edible parts in heavy shade, this should be notated and likely relegated down to partial shade status. 
 
Bryant RedHawk
garden master
Posts: 3161
Location: Vilonia, Arkansas - Zone 7B/8A stoney, sandy loam soil pH 6.5
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I totally agree with your assessment of this task William.

I have been researching planting Ginseng on my north facing slope, this is the normal site where you can find wild ginseng growing.
The shade limits of ginseng is Deep shade with about 2 hours of dappled sun light getting to the forest floor. I've never found any growing where there is no sun at all.

The way I've classified shade limits previously is:
Full shade, no direct sunlight reaches the soil. 
Dark, Deep shade, some dappled sunlight reaches the soil but for no more than 2 hours. 
Deep shade, some dappled sunlight reaches the soil for between 3 and 5 hours.
Medium shade, Dappled light for most of the day light period.
Light shade, Dappled light with at least 2 hours of full sun.

This was for a project where I was trying to define the best possible ginseng growing spaces.
What I found was best growth and seed producing in the areas that were in between my deep shade and medium shade designations.
Of course it takes two years for ginseng to establish from seed and then a minimum of 10 more years to be considered good, harvestable root.
My plan is to plant out at least 500 seeds per year for five years, that will just about cover my north facing slope from top to bottom allowing for foot paths.
The main problem should be with deer since this area happens to be one of their prime through fares.


 
William Wallace
Posts: 41
Location: Western North Carolina - Zone 7B stoney
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I have been adding new species into the original post.
We should have an update section to notate additions.
Adding an edit section into the OP would be easiest. 

But, is there a moratorium on the time a post can be edited?

There have been some great finds about shade plants. 
Here is one that I just found today:

"A long standing tradition of Japanese culture, Matcha Green Tea is the highest quality powdered green tea available. Made from the nutrient-rich young leaves picked from the tips of shade-grown Camellia sinensis plants, Matcha Green Tea is steamed, stemmed, and de-vined before being stone-ground into very fine powder. Matcha Green Tea powder is then stored away from light and oxygen in order to preserve its brilliant green color and antioxidant properties. This miracle elixir has been consumed for over a millennium in the Far East, and is now considered to be one of the most powerful super foods on the market today."  (via naturallivingideas dot com)

There is a grow your own Matcha article that says "Cover the tea plant with a bamboo screen or other porous cover four weeks before harvest. This screen reduces the amount of sunlight available to the tea leaves, making them work harder and produce more chlorophyll. This is what makes the leaves used in matcha tea more tender and a deeper green than other tea leaves." (via homeguides.sfgate dot com)

This article about Matcha describes the premier Japanese heirloom varieties and cultivation throughout the article.  "That said, camellia sinensis does have varietals, and some of them, it turns out, produce better matcha than others. The highest-grade matcha come almost invariably from one of three Japanese varietals (they’re calledsamidori, okumidori, and yabukita in Japanese) .... The very best matcha, in contrast, gets harvested—always by hand—just once per year, typically in May. Roughly six weeks before harvest, that is to say sometime in late March or early April, the tea fields, which are surrounded by scaffolding of sorts, are covered from the top. Traditionally, straw was employed for this, but nowadays it’s typically black vinyl sheets.....Only the smallest, youngest/greenest parts of the plant—the two leaves at the tip of each new shoot—are picked. They are then steamed to preserve the color and nutrients, and to stop the enzymatic action within the leaves, then thoroughly dried in large cages equipped with heated blowers." (via breakawaymatcha dot com)

And just like that, the rabbit hole continues. 
I posted an article about Yerba Mate, yesterday.
It's shade tolerance was never thought of, until matcha.

A quick search confirmed that my absolute favorite tea, is also shade grown.  "Yerba mate, is a shade subtropical. Like high quality coffee, high quality mate is shade-grown; delivering more flavor and containing more medicinal and nutritional properties than the commercially grown, sun farmed varieties." (via guayaki dot com)

So, I will definitely be adding Matcha, and Yerba Mate to the lists. 
Tea is hardy to 10b, and I am in zone 7. 
That a ton of work,  but possible if I put the tea
trees near an insulating body of water.
 
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