"Underpinning LaPara’s research, obvious though it might be, is an intriguing and rather frightening hypothesis: By gathering bacteria, including human pathogens, together in sewage treatment plants, we have unwittingly created ideal incubators for creating antibiotic-resistant pathogens and spreading them throughout the environment.
Drug-resistant bacteria: Sewage-treatment plants described as giant 'mixing vessels' after scientists discover mutated microbes in British river
in defense of sewerage plants, they were designed before "lateral transfer" of genes in bacteria was discovered
but now what do you do?
the sludge could be heat treated to kill the bacteria
but they are also in the water discharge
I find that study to be logical and expected when feces are observed as dynamic objects and not static objects.
The three methods that come to my mind to solve a biological problem like this are: a) use a biological system b) decentralize waste management c) combine a and b
a) I suggest a biological system because biology and living organisms dynamically respond to their environments, and I find it hard to think of a better way of treating waste than with another living system: establishing connections so that the friendlier flora and fauna devour the less friendly ones. Here are three documents explaining what I mean by biological/ecological wastewater treatment in ascending order of length and complexity: Eco-Engineering's Article, University of Vermont on Eco-Wastetreatment, and EPA on Wastewater Ponds. The last one is several hundred pages long; if one plans to read it, it is advised to download it instead of reading it in the browser. Here are images of what I am mean, and I find them easier and quicker to understand:
b and c) By decentralizing waste management, I mean installing waste treatment systems at every home and making everyone personally responsible for treating their own waste. This would prevent, or decrease, bacteria mixing. The ways I think this could go are by composting human feces and urine in a system like the Humanure Handbook describes or in a self-contained system like Sun-Mar's toilets, in a biogas/pond system like Geoff Lawton describes, or just a pond system like the ones above.
For the toilets, I am thinking like this:
For the biogas/pond systems, like this is what I am thinking of: (the advantage of using a biogas/pond system is that it allows for the methane gas to be used)
The war between fungi and bacteria has been going on for more than a billion years, and we have only been observing it for less than a century. Fungi produce new anti-bacteria molecules (antibiotics) all the time, evolving to stay even or one step ahead of them so their spores can propagate.
Spreading the sludge on a pile of wood chips, well inoculated with fungi, would make short work of those bacteria. This would be a good time to remember the 6 ways mushrooms can save the world:
English supermarket produces it own electricity from food waste and goes off-the-grid
Disconnects itself from national power grid
"The Sainsbury UK supermarket has become the world’s first market to remove itself from the national power grid and produce its own electricity entirely from food refuse. Its Cannock, Staffordshire location in England donates an all edible, leftover perishable items, but what’s gone bad is fed into a nearby anaerobic digester where it’s converted into electricity and transported back to the supermarket. using the company’s privately owned power line.
Sainsbury’s single location harvests enough electricity to power 2,500 homes."