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Images of Chinampas: share for teaching & education

 
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Since creating & teaching many permaculture Impress (LibreOffice's answer to Powerpoint) classes I've collected quite the archive of images related to permaculture. I feel it would behoove our online community to share our images for learning & teaching purposes. All images shared with adherence to & respect for attribution: always telling others the source where you got the image.
We can even use the concept of permaculture zones:
Zone 1: share images that you have taken & created of your projects,
Zone 2: share images that you have taken & created of others' projects,
Zone 3: share images from the Creative Commons, Public Domain, & other other copyleft licenses (eg. the WikiMedia Commons),
Zone 4: share images from permaculture websites, this way they can be attributed & it will hopefully draw more attention to their projects,
Zone 5: share relevant images from any other sources. Fair Use Doctrine may apply in the U.S. (and possibly other countries?) for nonprofit educational use.
Without further ado, I'd like to present what images I've collected so far from my "Chinampas" class. Note, I've not used all of these images in class, I just saved a lot during my research.
"This is the best system I have ever seen or experienced. My ancestors knew well what they did, that’s maybe the reason why Bill Mollison and Geoff Lawton often say these systems are among the most productive and efficient in the world." - Rodrigo Lañado - Chinampas 2.0 – an Elegant Technology From the Past to Save the Future - May 28, 2013 - PermacultureNews.org
Please feel free to upload your chinampa images to this thread!
chinampa_anthrome.files.wordpress.com.gif
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chinampa by anthrome.files.wordpress.com
chinampa_beds_flickr.com.jpg
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chinampa beds from flickr.com
chinampa_canal_flickr.com.jpg
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chinampa canal from flickr.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: chinampa cow from flickr.com; chinampa crops bird's eye view from flickr.com; chinampa en la Laguna de Tecocomulco from Hidalgo PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
chinampa_cow2_flickr.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampa_cow2_flickr.com.jpg]
chinampa cow from flickr.com
chinampa_crops_flickr.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampa_crops_flickr.com.jpg]
chinampa crops bird's eye view from flickr.com
chinampa_en_la_Laguna_de_Tecocomulco-_Hidalgo_PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampa_en_la_Laguna_de_Tecocomulco-_Hidalgo_PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com.jpg]
chinampa en la Laguna de Tecocomulco from Hidalgo PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: Chinampa by Jflo23 from WikiMedia.org; chinampa from projetsdepaysage.fr; & chinampa seedlings from flickr.com
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
Chinampa_Jflo23_WikiMedia.org.JPG
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Chinampa by Jflo23 from WikiMedia.org
chinampa_projetsdepaysage.fr.jpg
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chinampa from projetsdepaysage.fr
chinampa_seedlings_flickr.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampa_seedlings_flickr.com.jpg]
chinampa seedlings from flickr.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: chinampa sketch by ackmvmt.org, chinampa tool PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com, chinampas boat munchies.vice.com
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
chinampa_sketch_by_ackmvmt.org.jpg
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chinampa sketch by ackmvmt.org
chinampa_tool_PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampa_tool_PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com.jpg]
chinampa tool PensamientoAutodidacta.blogspot.com
chinampas_boat_munchies.vice.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_boat_munchies.vice.com.jpg]
chinampas boat munchies.vice.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: Chinampas by Karl Weule, Leitfaden der Voelkerkunde, Leipzig 1912 WikiMedia.org;
Chinampas capillary diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com; chinampas diagram by amazonaws.com translation: Descripción de la chiampa - Description of a chinampa, cultivos- crops, ahuejotes - perennial Bonpland willows (Salix bonplandiana), chinamitl - the fencing of canes or cornstalks along the edge of the chinampa, estacas - stakes, lago - lake, material orgánico - organic matter, agua lodo - nutrient dense "muddy water" which is scraped from the bottom of the canal & used as fertilizer for the crops.
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
Chinampas_by_Karl_Weule-_Leitfaden_der_Voelkerkunde-_Leipzig_1912_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Chinampas_by_Karl_Weule-_Leitfaden_der_Voelkerkunde-_Leipzig_1912_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Chinampas by Karl Weule, Leitfaden der Voelkerkunde, Leipzig 1912 WikiMedia.org
Chinampas_capillary_diagram_MidwestPermaculture.com.jpg
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Chinampas capillary diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com
chinampas_diagram_amazonaws.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_diagram_amazonaws.com.jpg]
chinampas diagram by amazonaws.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: Chinampas diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com, lettuce growing in chinampas from munchies.vice.com, los aztecas y chinampas from PicsForKeywordSuggestion.com TRANSLATION:
"Chinampas were demarcated with stakes placed in a straight line to create a border & were rectangular in shape & created in marshy lakes. Straight canals were constructed in between them so that canoes could travel around them. A chinampa was built with layers of aquatic vegetation gathered from the lake (& canals) and the mud at the bottom of the lake (& canals). Each layer was alternated (vegetation, then mud, then vegetation, etc.; read: SHEET MULCHING LASAGNA BEDS!!!) until a plot of land had been built up. The edges were planted with willow trees as reinforcement to secure the created land mass from erosion."
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
Chinampas_diagram_MidwestPermaculture.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for Chinampas_diagram_MidwestPermaculture.com.jpg]
Chinampas diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com
chinampas_lettuce_munchies.vice.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_lettuce_munchies.vice.com.jpg]
lettuce growing in chinampas from munchies.vice.com
chinampas_los_aztecas_PicsForKeywordSuggestion.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_los_aztecas_PicsForKeywordSuggestion.com.jpg]
los aztecas y chinampas from PicsForKeywordSuggestion.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: chinampas preparing bed for cultivation, from munchies.vice.com; chinampas, from Razon.com.mx; chinampas seedlings munchies.vice.com
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
chinampas_preparing_bed_for_cultivation_munchies.vice.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_preparing_bed_for_cultivation_munchies.vice.com.jpg]
chinampas preparing bed for cultivation, from munchies.vice.com
chinampas_Razon.com.mx.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_Razon.com.mx.jpg]
chinampas, from Razon.com.mx
chinampas_seedlings_munchies.vice.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_seedlings_munchies.vice.com.jpg]
chinampas seedlings munchies.vice.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of chinampas: chinampas from SimpleCapacity.com; Chinampas trellises diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com; chinampas workers from munchies.vice.com
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
chinampas_SimpleCapacity.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_SimpleCapacity.com.jpg]
chinampas from SimpleCapacity.com
Chinampas_trellises_diagram_MidwestPermaculture.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for Chinampas_trellises_diagram_MidwestPermaculture.com.jpg]
Chinampas trellises diagram from MidwestPermaculture.com
chinampas_workers_munchies.vice.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for chinampas_workers_munchies.vice.com.jpg]
chinampas workers from munchies.vice.com
 
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More images of chinampas: Lancha atada en la entrada de una chinampa (TRANSLATION: boat tied up in the entrance of a chinampa) by Emmanuel Eslava from WikiMedia.org; Tenochtitlan from Ancient.eu; Tenochtitlan illustration from ThingLink.com
"Mexico-Tenochtitlan (today -with its endangered chinampa system- it's known as Mexico City): Founded on June 20, 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century, until it was captured by the Spanish in 1521. At its peak it was the largest city in the Pre-Columbian Americas.
The city was connected to the mainland by causeways leading to the north, south, and west. The causeways were interrupted by bridges that allowed canoes and other water traffic to pass freely. The bridges could be pulled away, if necessary, to defend the city. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or via canoe.
Lake Texcoco was the largest of five interconnected lakes. Since it formed in an endorheic basin, Lake Texcoco was brackish. During the reign of Moctezuma I, the "levee of Nezahualcoyotl" was constructed, reputedly designed by Nezahualcoyotl. Estimated to be 12 to 16 km (7.5 to 9.9 mi) in length, the levee was completed circa 1453. The levee kept fresh spring-fed water in the waters around Tenochtitlan and kept the brackish waters beyond the dike, to the east.
Two double aqueducts, each more than 4 km (2.5 mi) long and made of terracotta, provided the city with fresh water from the springs at Chapultepec. This was intended mainly for cleaning and washing. For drinking, water from mountain springs was preferred. Most of the population liked to bathe twice a day; Moctezuma was said to take four baths a day. According to the context of Aztec culture in literature, the soap that they most likely used was the root of a plant called copalxocotl (Saponaria americana), and to clean their clothes they used the root of metl (Agave americana). Also, the upper classes and pregnant women washed themselves in a temazcalli, similar to a sauna bath, which is still used in the south of Mexico. This was also popular in other Mesoamerican cultures.
When we saw so many cities and villages built in the water and other great towns on dry land we were amazed and said that it was like the enchantments (...) on account of the great towers and cues and buildings rising from the water, and all built of masonry. And some of our soldiers even asked whether the things that we saw were not a dream? (...) I do not know how to describe it, seeing things as we did that had never been heard of or seen before, not even dreamed about. — Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain
Surrounding the raised causeways were artificial floating gardens with canal waterways and gardens of plants, shrubs, and trees. The calpullis were divided by channels used for transportation, with wood bridges that were removed at night.
Tenochtitlan was the capital of the Mexican civilization of the Mexica people founded in 1325. The state religion of the Mexica civilization awaited the fulfillment of an ancient prophecy: the wandering tribes would find the destined site for a great city whose location would be signaled by an eagle eating a snake perched atop a cactus.
The Mexica saw this vision on what was then a small swampy island in Lake Texcoco, a vision that is now immortalized in Mexico's coat of arms and on the Mexican flag. Not deterred by the unfavourable terrain, they set about building their city, using the chinampa system (misnamed as "floating gardens") for agriculture and to dry and expand the island.
With an estimated population between 200,000 and 300,000, many scholars believe Tenochtitlan to have been among the largest cities in the world at that time. Compared to Europe, only Paris, Venice and Constantinople might have rivaled it. It was five times the size of the London of Henry VIII. In a letter to the Spanish king, Cortés wrote that Tenochtitlan was as large as Seville or Córdoba. Cortes' men were in awe at the sight of the splendid city and many wondered if they were dreaming." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenochtitlan
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
Lancha_atada_en_la_entrada_de_una_chinampa_by_Emmanuel_Eslava_WikiMedia.org.JPG
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Lancha atada en la entrada de una chinampa by Emmanuel Eslava from WikiMedia.org
Tenochtitlan_Ancient.eu.png
[Thumbnail for Tenochtitlan_Ancient.eu.png]
Tenochtitlan from Ancient.eu
Tenochtitlan_illustration_ThingLink.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for Tenochtitlan_illustration_ThingLink.com.jpg]
Tenochtitlan illustration from ThingLink.com
 
Loxley Clovis
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More images of Tenochtitlan: Tenochtitlan from LatinAmericanStudies.org; Tenochtitlan map from thoughtco.com; Tenochtitlan map from WikiMedia.org
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
Tenochtitlan_LatinAmericanStudies.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Tenochtitlan_LatinAmericanStudies.org.jpg]
Tenochtitlan from LatinAmericanStudies.org
tenochtitlan_map_thoughtco.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for tenochtitlan_map_thoughtco.com.jpg]
Tenochtitlan map from thoughtco.com
Tenochtitlan_map_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Tenochtitlan_map_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Tenochtitlan map from WikiMedia.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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Another image of Tenochtitlan: Tenochtitlan Rivera coat of arms from Fusion.net
If you have any images you'd like to share, please add to the thread. Thanks
tenochtitlan-rivera-coat_Fusion.net.jpg
[Thumbnail for tenochtitlan-rivera-coat_Fusion.net.jpg]
Tenochtitlan Rivera coat of arms from Fusion.net
 
Loxley Clovis
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After defeating the Aztecs, the lake & floating gardens of Tenochtitlan were drained by the conquerors from Spain "to prevent flooding". They then dug wells to get freshwater from the aquifers below &, as the population rises & more water is extracted from underneath, the city has been sinking ever since with dramatic effects. Today, Mexico City's metro area, where the city of Tenochtitlan once "floated", contains over 20 million people and continues to sink.
IMAGES:
Mexico City, Chalco Lake from thepolisblog.org
Santa Catarina, Mexico City from thepolisblog.orgsanta
the projects of Mexico City by Livia Corona from thepolisblog.org
Images from this article: Landscape Morphology in Mexico City
Here are some great aerial photos of modern Mexico City's street markets. You can see their multi-colored canopies: Mexico City Street Markets
Mexico_City-_Chalco_Lake_thepolisblog.org.JPG
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Mexico City, Chalco Lake from thepolisblog.org
Mexico_City-_Santa_Catarina_thepolisblog.org.JPG
[Thumbnail for Mexico_City-_Santa_Catarina_thepolisblog.org.JPG]
Santa Catarina, Mexico City from thepolisblog.orgsanta
Mexico_City-_the_projects_by_Livia_Corona_thepolisblog.org.JPG
[Thumbnail for Mexico_City-_the_projects_by_Livia_Corona_thepolisblog.org.JPG]
the projects of Mexico City by Livia Corona from thepolisblog.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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Here is the video that inspired this post:
"Hombres de Maíz 'Men of Maize' presents with affection this mini documentary with the intention of spreading the system of 'Chinampa' Mexican, perfect permaculture system, the most compact, sophisticated, productive and powerful system of natural organic farming, collection and treatment water, aquaculture, organic fertilizer production and territorial expansion on the surface of lakes and streams. Hopefully you will enjoy it." -HombresDeMaiz.com.mx by Rodrigo Lañado Cruz

 
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Thank you so much for sharing! I've wondered if I could use a similar method in an area of my land that has stagnant stream? Basically there is just no where for the water to go. I've thought of digging some swales and berms just to give the water somewhere to flow to and maybe the then the water wouldn't be stagnant? The ground around the stream is already "floating" so you need to wear high boots when walking in the area. This thread gives me something to think about.  I was already thinking about adding willows to the area.
 
Loxley Clovis
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Josephine Howland wrote:Thank you so much for sharing! I've wondered if I could use a similar method in an area of my land that has stagnant stream? Basically there is just no where for the water to go. I've thought of digging some swales and berms just to give the water somewhere to flow to and maybe the then the water wouldn't be stagnant? The ground around the stream is already "floating" so you need to wear high boots when walking in the area. This thread gives me something to think about.  I was already thinking about adding willows to the area.


I'm not sure as I've never build one. Willow is useful for basketry, white willow bark for pain relief [see: salicin], & of course they're used in chinampas to secure the banks of the "islands". So that's definitely a possibility. Another key concept is that of scraping the nutritious mud off the bottom of the waters & layering it with sticks & plant matter to build up the island & then create beds that need little-to-no watering. You might give it a try & let us know how it goes.
Photos of your situation may help folks be able to contribute some ideas.
I'm extremely interested in applying this to a friend's garden area that is extremely flat & has plenty of flowing springs. I feel like a key to Yeomans-inspired permaculture is using earthworks on slope to passively harvest & infiltrate water. Chinampas seem like a permacultural solution for those of us in very flat valley basins or on lakes.
 
Josephine Howland
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Thank for your ideas. We will be under snow for at 3 more months, so I won't be able to take photos for a while.  I still need to do some tree removal in order to get any kind of sunlight to the water. I am in a hollow between mountains, with very flat land. My water table is very high, and we are over a large and deep aquifer.
 
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Bangladeshi floating gardens:
Not quite sure these belong here, but they're similar:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JatsIs73RA
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AK_qTm2pUsw
This one's not in english, but has inspiring images:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktzkGqvWnUE
 
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