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Images of Fungi: share for teaching & education  RSS feed

 
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Since creating & teaching many permaculture Impress (LibreOffice's answer to Powerpoint) classes I've collected quite the archive of images related to permaculture. I feel it would behoove our online community to share our images for learning & teaching purposes. All images shared with adherence to & respect for attribution: always telling others the source where you got the image.
We can even use the concept of permaculture zones:
Zone 1: share images that you have taken & created of your projects,
Zone 2: share images that you have taken & created of others' projects,
Zone 3: share images from the Creative Commons, Public Domain, & other other copyleft licenses (eg. the WikiMedia Commons),
Zone 4: share images from permaculture websites, this way they can be attributed & it will hopefully draw more attention to their projects,
Zone 5: share relevant images from any other sources. Fair Use Doctrine may apply in the U.S. (and possibly other countries?) for nonprofit educational use.
Without further ado, I'd like to present what images I've collected so far from my "Fungi in Permaculture" class. Note, I've not used all of these images in class, I just saved a lot during my research.
Please feel free to upload your fungi images to this thread!
*Disclaimer* It is not recommended to eat any wild mushroom based on the information in this thread alone. Always consult your local mycology expert & comprehensive colored field guide from a reputable publisher.
Morchella_esculenta_Wikimedia.org.jpg
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Morchella esculenta, from Wikimedia.org
Morel_Wikimedia.org.jpg
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Morel, from Wikimedia.org
Mushroom_Insulation_Installation_Ecovative_Design_by_Mycobond_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Mushroom_Insulation_Installation_Ecovative_Design_by_Mycobond_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Mushroom Insulation Installation Ecovative Design by Mycobond, from WikiMedia.org
 
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I saw this the other day...


A fungi that grows in salty sand!
Psathyrella ammophila
 
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Good idea and interesting images.
John S
PDX OR
 
Loxley Clovis
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Wow Nick!!! Thanks for sharing! I've been to many beaches, but I have never seen mushrooms growing on beach sand!!! I guess I'm always paying too much attention to the ocean's horizon & not at my feet. I know what I'm doing next time I'm going to the beach!
Do you know if this variety is edible, medicinal, or poisonous?
 
Loxley Clovis
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IMAGE 1: Mushroom cap morphology by debivort from WikiMedia.org
IMAGE 2: Coprinus comatus, shaggy ink cap, lawyer's wig, shaggy mane, from WikiMedia.org
Note from Hester: "Image 2 is actually a botanical sketch illustrating both the shaggy ink cap (edible) and the common ink cap (poisonous if consumed before or after alcohol) so beware."
"When young it is an excellent edible mushroom provided that it is eaten soon after being collected (it keeps very badly because of the autodigestion of its gills and cap). If long-term storage is desired, microwaving, sauteing or simmering until limp will allow the mushrooms to be stored in a refrigerator for several days or frozen. Also, placing the mushrooms in a glass of ice water will delay the decomposition for a day or two so that one has time to incorporate them into a meal. Processing or icing must be done whether for eating or storage within four to six hours of harvest to prevent undesirable changes to the mushroom. The species is cultivated in China as food.
The mushroom can sometimes be confused with the magpie fungus which is poisonous. In America, the 'vomiter' mushroom Chlorophyllum molybdites is responsible for most cases of mushroom poisoning due to its similarity with shaggy mane and other edible mushrooms." -Wikipedia.org
IMAGE 3: Shaggy Ink Caps busting through asphalt by Mr Barndoor from WikiMedia.org
CAPS_Mushroom_cap_morphology_by_debivort_WikiMedia.org.png
[Thumbnail for CAPS_Mushroom_cap_morphology_by_debivort_WikiMedia.org.png]
Mushroom cap morphology by debivort from WikiMedia.org
Coprinus_comatus-_shaggy_ink_cap-_lawyer-s_wig-_shaggy_mane_(Pl._7)_BHL2978947_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Coprinus_comatus-_shaggy_ink_cap-_lawyer-s_wig-_shaggy_mane_(Pl._7)_BHL2978947_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Coprinus comatus, shaggy ink cap, lawyer's wig, shaggy mane, from WikiMedia.org
Shaggy_Ink_Caps_busting_through_asphalt_by_Mr_Barndoor_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for Shaggy_Ink_Caps_busting_through_asphalt_by_Mr_Barndoor_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Shaggy Ink Caps busting through asphalt by Mr Barndoor from WikiMedia.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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Boletus chrysenteron (Red Cracking Bolete) by The High Fin Whale from WikiMedia.org
Boletus chrysenteron by Jörg Hempel from WikiMedia.org
Xerocomellus chrysenteron by George Chernilevsky from WikiMedia.org
EDIBLE_Boletus_chrysenteron_(Red_Cracking_Bolete)_by_The_High_Fin_Whale_WikiMedia.org.JPG
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Boletus_chrysenteron_(Red_Cracking_Bolete)_by_The_High_Fin_Whale_WikiMedia.org.JPG]
Boletus chrysenteron (Red Cracking Bolete) by The High Fin Whale from WikiMedia.org
EDIBLE_Boletus_chrysenteron__by_J-rg_Hempel_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Boletus_chrysenteron__by_J-rg_Hempel_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Boletus chrysenteron by Jörg Hempel from WikiMedia.org
EDIBLE_Xerocomellus_chrysenteron_by_George_Chernilevsky_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Xerocomellus_chrysenteron_by_George_Chernilevsky_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Xerocomellus chrysenteron by George Chernilevsky from WikiMedia.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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Xerocomus chrysenteron by Jerzy Opioła from WikiMedia.org
Inonotus obliquus, chaga, Karmėlava forest, Lithuania by Tocekas from WikiMedia.org
reishi by frankenstoen WikiMedia.org
EDIBLE_Xerocomus_chrysenteron_Jerzy_Opio-a_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Xerocomus_chrysenteron_Jerzy_Opio-a_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Xerocomus chrysenteron by Jerzy Opioła from WikiMedia.org
MEDICINAL_Inonotus_obliquus-_chaga-_Karm-lava_forest-_Lithuania_by_Tocekas_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for MEDICINAL_Inonotus_obliquus-_chaga-_Karm-lava_forest-_Lithuania_by_Tocekas_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Inonotus obliquus, chaga, Karmėlava forest, Lithuania by Tocekas from WikiMedia.org
MEDICINAL_reishi_by_frankenstoen_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for MEDICINAL_reishi_by_frankenstoen_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
reishi by frankenstoen WikiMedia.org
 
steward
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Lots of beautiful pics of fungi here, Loxley. Deserves some apples I'm thinking.
 
steward
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Yep more apples!
I would love to hear more about your Fungi in Permaculture class too Loxley.
 
Loxley Clovis
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Miles Flansburg wrote:Yep more apples!
I would love to hear more about your Fungi in Permaculture class too Loxley.


Thank you for your interest Miles. My partner Rhapsody & I are currently co-teaching permaculture classes at the Wellsprings in Ashland, OR throughout the summer. So far they've been introduction to permaculture classes & workshops. For last week's workshop we built an herb spiral after class. Next month, July, we will be teaching Social Permaculture classes Thursday nights at 6 PM.
As for our "Fungi in Permaculture" class, we are currently writing the material for it, so it is not yet finished. The images that I post here are images that I have come across online while making the slides for the class.
My goals for the "Fungi in Permaculture" class are as follows: reduce people's mycophobia by showing them how awesome & beneficial fungi are, teaching folks how important fungi are to the soil foodweb & forest ecosystem, showing people how they can use fungi as companion "plants" & bioremediation friends. Because we also have commercial kitchens on site, we will also be doing cooking classes.
I was inspired to write the "Fungi in Permaculture" class after reading Paul Stamet's book Mycelium Running. He mentions permaculture as a solutionary approach to gardening & bioremediation several times in that book. So he's without a doubt an ally of the permaculture community. sepp holzer's Permaculture book also has some indispensable natural small-scale cultivation techniques. 
We do have Stropharia rugosoannulata (wine cap) mushroom beds at the Wellsprings that we've made that fruit seasonally in our large garden-farm. The food from this garden supplies the cafe-restaurant here at the Wellsprings. We are planning to incorporate many more edible & medicinal varieties of fungi in our garden-farm as well.
 
Miles Flansburg
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That sounds great ! Keep us posted.
 
Loxley Clovis
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Trametes versicolor, Turkey tail by T.Voekler, from WikiMedia.org
Trametes versicolor, Turkey tail mushroom, plus alder catkins by Peter Stevens, from WikiMedia.org
Mycorrhizal symbiosis fungus by Natr WikiMedai.org
MEDICINAL_Trametes_versicolor-_Turkey_tail_by_T.Voekler_WikiMedia.org.png
[Thumbnail for MEDICINAL_Trametes_versicolor-_Turkey_tail_by_T.Voekler_WikiMedia.org.png]
Trametes versicolor, Turkey tail by T.Voekler, from WikiMedia.org
MEDICINAL_Trametes_Versicolor-_Turkey_tail_mushroom-_plus_alder_catkins_by_Peter_Stevens_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for MEDICINAL_Trametes_Versicolor-_Turkey_tail_mushroom-_plus_alder_catkins_by_Peter_Stevens_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Trametes versicolor, Turkey tail mushroom, plus alder catkins by Peter Stevens, from WikiMedia.org
Mycorrhizal_symbiosis_fungus_by_Natr_WikiMedai.org.svg.png
[Thumbnail for Mycorrhizal_symbiosis_fungus_by_Natr_WikiMedai.org.svg.png]
Mycorrhizal symbiosis fungus by Natr WikiMedai.org
 
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Hello, thanks for sharing!

I'm really inetrested in growing muchrooms on my farm in Tiavi, Apia, Western Samoa. It's a rainforest enviroment. Any ideas of what may grow? I'm looking at different vegetables and herbs for residential use but also commercial growing for the local restaurants. I was researching mushrooms a while ago but thought it would be so differcult. It's 20-33* most of the time and some monsoon rain. I'm looking at greenhouses and using shipping containers but it's all trial and error. We have rich soil with volcanic rocks. We also have a beach area those mushrooms in the sand are amazing but I can't seethem growing in Samoa. I was wondering about truffles?
Regards,
Roanne
 
Loxley Clovis
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Mamaro,
Hopefully someone here with experience growing fungi in the tropics, particularly Polynesia, will respond. In the mean time my quick search pulled up these articles:

"It turns out that growing mushrooms in Samoa is not as easy as you might think. The hot tropical climate is hard on mushrooms, and few conventional substrates are available locally. Farmers lack elaborate laboratory facilities with cooled growth chambers, and grain and hardwoods generally used for mushroom cultivation are not grown in Samoa. Daisuke has overcome these obstacles with his creative ideas. Rather than cultivating the common oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, he uses P. pulmonarius, an oyster mushroom more tolerant of higher temperatures. Other species he has had success with are Auricularia polytricha (wood ear mushroom), Ganoderma lucidum (reishi), and Pleurotus citrinopileatus (golden oyster mushroom). The Auricularia and Ganoderma strains he is using were found in the native forests of Samoa, and other cultures have been sent from Japan. Daisuke has also experimented with Lentinula edodes (shiitake), however, he has found that the climate and available substrates limit its production."
Daisuke Goto – The first to cultivate mushrooms in Samoa, by Mana Ohkura, PhD student in Plant Pathology at Cornell University, March 1, 2017

"The tropical mushroom varieties that METI has experience with belong to the species Pleurotus. They are referred to as Oyster mushrooms. The varieties used are: P. sapidus, P. himalaya and P. butancream. One of the conclusions of the research project was that several tree species considered invasives in Samoa, such as the African Rubber tree (Funtumia elastica) (pulu vao), the African Tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) (fapasi) and the Albizia tree (Albizia chinensis) (tamaligi), as well as a species of flowering vine in the morning glory family, Merremia peltata, can be used as components of the substrate for growing tropical mushrooms."
Tropical Mushroom Growing

I wish you luck & success on your fungi journey
EDIBLE_Pleurotus_pulmonarius_(Jacq.)_(Indian_Oyster-_Italian_Oyster-_Phoenix_Mushroom-_Lung_Oyster)_P._Kumm_by_Richard_Kneal_Wikimedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Pleurotus_pulmonarius_(Jacq.)_(Indian_Oyster-_Italian_Oyster-_Phoenix_Mushroom-_Lung_Oyster)_P._Kumm_by_Richard_Kneal_Wikimedia.org.jpg]
Pleurotus pulmonarius (aka: Indian Oyster, Italian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, Lung Oyster) by Richard Kneal, from Wikimedia.org
EDIBLE_Auricularia_polytricha_by_Pieria_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for EDIBLE_Auricularia_polytricha_by_Pieria_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
Auricularia polytricha by Pieria WikiMedia.org
MEDICINAL_reishi_by_Eric_Steinert-_WikiMedia.org.jpg
[Thumbnail for MEDICINAL_reishi_by_Eric_Steinert-_WikiMedia.org.jpg]
reishi (aka: lingzhi) by Eric Steinert, WikiMedia.org
 
Mamaro Folesi
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Thanks so much!! this is very useful and rejogged my memory as I had previously read this article on Daisuke Goto. I hope they're still successfully growing in Apia. All the best, Mama Ro
 
Loxley Clovis
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You're welcome Mamaro. I hope you can use the trees mentioned in the second article (metisamoa) as substrate. If successful it would be a cool way to help clear invasive tree species.

"Everything that you can do with [industrial] materials (PVC, steel, etc.) you can do with earth & plants. For instance, I think the keyline system is a better system for irrigation than piped systems. ... So what we try and [create are] systems which don't need an awful lot of [industrial] material. There's a very good book by Ken Kurn called The Healthy House: An Owner-Builders Guide to Biological Building and it goes into discussion of the materials used in homes very thoroughly. I think it's almost compulsory reading." -Bill Mollison, 1983 permaculture design course

Industrial fungi: Ecovative Design is doing some cool stuff


 
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Thanks for opening this thread and sharing you images and knowledge
 
Loxley Clovis
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Thank you for the knowledge appreciation Antonio. However, I can't take credit for the images. They're all taken by other people & are uploaded in the Creative Commons; so I suppose they are "our" images.
I'd like to thank everyone who makes this sharing possible by contributing to the Creative Commons!
 
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This website has thousands of images of fungi, all either creative commons or public domain:
mushroomobserver.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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WOW! Thank you Lance!!! What an amazing resource!
 
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Some of these started growing here last week ('here' is in Meppel, province Drenthe, the Netherlands). It must be some species of Lepiota, but I don't know which one.
 
Inge Leonora-den Ouden
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This is a sketch I made of the first Oyster Mushrooms I grew (on coffee-grounds). I am waiting for more now ...
 
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Fantastic resource!
I harvested Pheasant Tail mushrooms from an elm tree stump in the back yard this spring; unfortunately I can't find the photo I used to ID them. Very tasty, though.
Looking forward to learning more.
 
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Loxley Clovis wrote:I
IMAGE 2: Coprinus comatus, shaggy ink cap, lawyer's wig, shaggy mane, from WikiMedia.org



Image 2 is actually a botanical sketch illustrating both the shaggy ink cap (edible) and the common ink cap (poisonous if consumed before or after alcohol) so beware.
 
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This Mushroom comes with its own Mosquitonet. Found in our flower/herb garden on Mindanao/Philippines
DSC00006.jpg
[Thumbnail for DSC00006.jpg]
Mosquitonet Mashroom
DSC00007.jpg
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Mashroom which comes with it's own Mosquitonet
 
Inge Leonora-den Ouden
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This Boletus badius (syn. Xerocomus badius) tasted delicious, baked in butter with a pinch of salt.

before


after baking (before eating )
 
Hester Winterbourne
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Inge Leonora-den Ouden wrote:Some of these started growing here last week ('here' is in Meppel, province Drenthe, the Netherlands). It must be some species of Lepiota, but I don't know which one.



Well if I found that I would start by suspecting Parasol mushroom, but I would take a darn good book with me before I decided whether or not to pick and eat it.  This whole thread, though fascinating, makes me slightly uneasy to think that people may see a mushroom on it and think they have spotted the same thing and eat the wrong one based on that identification.  There is so much more to correctly identifiying mushrooms, and they can be so variable especially as they age that going by a photo is too risky.  The stem, gills, smell, flesh colour are all also important.

And then again, it is not so easy to carry an internet based database with you into the field, which increases the risk of people picking quantities of mushrooms to take home and identify, then wasting them when they realise they are not edible after all.  Give me a reliable field guide any day.  But then I am a grumpy old stick-in-the-mud!
 
Inge Leonora-den Ouden
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Hester Winterbourne wrote:quote=Inge Leonora-den Ouden: ....

Well if I found that I would start by suspecting Parasol mushroom, but I would take a darn good book with me before I decided whether or not to pick and eat it.  This whole thread, though fascinating, makes me slightly uneasy to think that people may see a mushroom on it and think they have spotted the same thing and eat the wrong one based on that identification.  There is so much more to correctly identifiying mushrooms, and they can be so variable especially as they age that going by a photo is too risky.  The stem, gills, smell, flesh colour are all also important.

And then again, it is not so easy to carry an internet based database with you into the field, which increases the risk of people picking quantities of mushrooms to take home and identify, then wasting them when they realise they are not edible after all.  Give me a reliable field guide any day.  But then I am a grumpy old stick-in-the-mud!



I agree with you Hester. I know this is some species of 'parasol mushroom', but I could not find out which species exactly. I left them at their spot (where even more are growing now!). Those parasol mushrooms are not well-known as edible mushrooms. So they probably aren't (or they don't taste well).

But the title of the topic doesn't say this is all about edible mushrooms ...
 
Hester Winterbourne
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Inge Leonora-den Ouden wrote:

I agree with you Hester. I know this is some species of 'parasol mushroom', but I could not find out which species exactly. I left them at their spot (where even more are growing now!). Those parasol mushrooms are not well-known as edible mushrooms. So they probably aren't (or they don't taste well).

But the title of the topic doesn't say this is all about edible mushrooms ...



Shaggy parasol I think, anyway.  My book lists only two species and says there is no risk of mis-identification apart from with one which has a dark bulb at the base of the stem and goes salmon coloured when cut.  So this afternoon when I found some I had them for tea!
 
Loxley Clovis
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Possibly the world's largest yet-discovered living organism?
Humongous Fungus (armillaria ostoyae) by Clayton Kauzlaric at clayorama.blogspot.com
Humongous Fungus (armillaria ostoyae) honey mushroom organism largest, Oregon; second photo by paul stamets
Humongous_Fungus_armillaria-ostoyae_by_Clayton_Kauzlaric_clayorama.blogspot.com.jpg
[Thumbnail for Humongous_Fungus_armillaria-ostoyae_by_Clayton_Kauzlaric_clayorama.blogspot.com.jpg]
Humongous Fungus - armillaria ostoyae by Clayton Kauzlaric at clayorama.blogspot.com
Humongous_Fungus_armillaria-ostoyae_honey_mushroom_organism_largest-_Oregon.jpg
[Thumbnail for Humongous_Fungus_armillaria-ostoyae_honey_mushroom_organism_largest-_Oregon.jpg]
Humongous Fungus (armillaria ostoyae) honey mushroom organism largest, Oregon
Humongous_Fungus_honey_mushroom_organism_largest-_Oregon.jpg
[Thumbnail for Humongous_Fungus_honey_mushroom_organism_largest-_Oregon.jpg]
Humongous Fungus (armillaria ostoyae) honey mushroom organism largest, Oregon
 
Loxley Clovis
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Hester Winterbourne wrote:...I would take a darn good book with me before I decided whether or not to pick and eat it.  This whole thread, though fascinating, makes me slightly uneasy to think that people may see a mushroom on it and think they have spotted the same thing and eat the wrong one based on that identification.  There is so much more to correctly identifiying mushrooms, and they can be so variable especially as they age that going by a photo is too risky.  The stem, gills, smell, flesh colour are all also important.
And then again, it is not so easy to carry an internet based database with you into the field, which increases the risk of people picking quantities of mushrooms to take home and identify, then wasting them when they realise they are not edible after all.  Give me a reliable field guide any day.  But then I am a grumpy old stick-in-the-mud!


Spore color can also be an identifying feature.
Thank you Hester for your valuable warnings. I have added a disclaimer about eating wild mushrooms to the Original Post as well as added your quote about the common ink cap & alcohol to the coprinus comatus post.
Folks should always be aware when eating anything -not just in the fungi kingdom- from the wild. For example, a novice forager might not know the identity & poisonous properties of hemlock (conium maculatum) or a blowfish (tetraodontidae).
 
Loxley Clovis
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First photo: Enokitake Japanese Mushroom anticarcinogenic by Chris 73, WikiMedia.org
"Enokitake mushrooms contain antioxidants, like ergothioneine. Animal testing has indicated possible applications in the development of vaccines and cancer immunotherapy." -Wikipedia.org/Enokitake
Bao HN, Ushio H, Ohshima T (March 2009). "Antioxidative activities of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to bigeye tuna meat: dose-dependent efficacy and comparison with other biological antioxidants". Journal of Food Science. 74 (2): C162–9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01069.x. PMID 19323731.
Bao HN, Ushio H, Ohshima T (November 200-. "Antioxidative activity and antidiscoloration efficacy of ergothioneine in mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to beef and fish meats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (21): 10032–40. doi:10.1021/jf8017063. PMID 18841979.
"New look at two wonder mushrooms". National University of Singapore. 2001–2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.

Second photo: Lion's Mane Mushroom or Bearded Tooth Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) by Lebrac, WikiMedia.org
Third photo: Lion's Mane Mushroom or Bearded Tooth Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus Pompom blanc) by Henk Monster, WikiMedia.org.jpg

"Lions mane is neurogenetic, preventative / treatment for alzheimers, muscular distrophy, etc [Kawagishi, 1994]." -Paul Stamets, Joe Rogan Experience podcast #1035

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Enokitake Japanese Mushroom anticarcinogenic by Chris 73, WikiMedia.org
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Lion's Mane Mushroom or Bearded Tooth Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) by Lebrac, WikiMedia.org
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Lion's Mane Mushroom or Bearded Tooth Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus Pompom blanc) by Henk Monster, WikiMedia.org.jpg
 
Loxley Clovis
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Agarikon
"Laricifomes [or Fomitopsis - depending on the tree it's growing on] officinalis is a wood-decay fungus in the order Polyporales. It causes brown heart rot on conifers, and is found in Europe, Asia, and North America, as well as Morocco. ...
L. officinalis was used by the Ancient Greeks to treat consumption (tuberculosis) according to the writings of Pedanius Dioscorides in 65 AD, and by some indigenous people to treat smallpox. The presence of Agarikon at burial sites may indicate that its use was once widespread.
Mycologist Paul Stamets has performed numerous investigations of the biological activities of Agarikon. Agarikon extracts have demonstrated antiviral activity against a range of viruses in vitro. This activity has been specifically observed against pox family viruses, HSV-1 and HSV-2, Influenza A, Influenza B, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.
Other researchers have identified novel chlorinated coumarins in the organism which demonstrated notably low minimum inhibitory concentrations against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.
Laricifomes officinalis was important both medicinally and spiritually to indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America, such as the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian. L. officinalis was referred to as the "bread of ghosts" in local languages, and carved fruiting bodies marked the graves of tribal shamans.
References:
Walker, Brett (May 1999). "The Early Modern Japanese State and Ainu Vaccinations: Redefining the Body Politic 1799-1868". Past & Present. 163 (1): 121–61. doi:10.1093/past/163.1.121. JSTOR 651171. PMID 22049584.
Stamets, Paul (2005). "Medicinal Polypores of the Forests of North America: Screening for Novel Antiviral Activity". IntJMedMushrooms. 7 (3): 362. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v7.i3.210.
Stamets, Paul (2005). "Antipox Properties of Fomitopsis officinalis (Vill.: Fr.) Bond. et Singer (Agarikon) from the Pacific Northwest of North America". IntJMedMushr. 7 (3): 495–506. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v7.i3.60.
Stamets, Paul. "[Patent] Antiviral and antibacterial activity from medicinal mushrooms". Google Patents.
Hwang, Chang (2013). "Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and Their Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis". J Nat Prod. 76 (10): 1916–1922. doi:10.1021/np400497f.
Blanchette, Robert A.; Compton, Brian D.; Turner, Nancy J.; Gilbertson, Robert L. (Jan–Feb 1992). "Nineteenth Century Shaman Grave Guardians Are Carved Fomitopsis officinalis Sporophores". Mycologia. 84 (1): 119–124. doi:10.2307/3760412. JSTOR 3760412."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laricifomes_officinalis

NOTE FROM PAUL STAMETS: Please do not harvest an entire wild fruit body. Individual officinalis mushrooms can be very old (decades). Nowadays, he only harvests a tissue sample from wild specimens for later growth of the mycelium.
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Fomitopsis officinalis - agarikon by Steph Jarvis, WikiMedia.org
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Fomitopsis officinalis sporophore - shaman grave gardian carved agarikon
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Fomitopsis officinalis sporophore - shaman grave gardian carvings agarikon
 
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"The chair’s sinuous curves look organic, but were all painstakingly specified with CAD software and 3-D printed as hollow skins using a corn-based bioplastic. Pellets made from straw filled the cavities and a starter solution of liquified spores was fed into the construct. Over a period of five days the eukaroytes fed off the nutrients in the straw and infiltrated the tiny gaps between the straw pellets and plastic skin, acting like an organic glue that bound the chair together and transformed a flimsy husk into a sturdy household item. Tiny perforations in the surface gave way and allowed mushrooms to sprout, creating an unplanned organic upholstery. ...
Klarenbeek imagines a future where everything from our homes to our furnishings could be manufactured locally and sustainably—using mushrooms. 'We can 3-D print both the house, insulating structure and its skin at once,' he says. 'By combining 3-D printing and mycelium, the applications are endless.'" - No Shiitake, This Chair Is Made of Mushrooms, by Joseph Flaherty, Wired.com, 9:30 AM, 12.03.13.
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Mycelium chair 3D print lab by Eric_Klarenbeek
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Mycelium chair 3D printer by Eric Klarenbeek
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Mycelium chair 3D printed by Eric Klarenbeek
 
Loxley Clovis
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"This application started as a personal project for Gavin, one of Ecovative’s co-founders; growing up surfing on Long Island, he’s had, since some of the earliest days of the company, a desire to create a Mushroom® Surfboard. We tried (and, despite what Gavin may sentimentally recall, failed miserably) a few times throughout the years; but in late 2013, we had learned a lot about growing biocomposites and we felt confident we could give it another shot.
...
This led to the launch of a Grow It Yourself platform where we enable the people who know how to make their products best, in this case shapers, to grow their own items by providing the raw material and technical knowledge. We’re calling this GIY and it allows anyone to grow anything from a surfboard to a lamp." - Ecovative Design
MYCELIUM-SURFBOARD_beach_walk_Ecovativedesign.com.jpg
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MYCELIUM SURFBOARD beach walk, Ecovativedesign.com
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MYCELIUM SURFBOARD infographic, Ecovativedesign.com
MYCELIUM-SURFBOARD_beach_Haute-Innovation.com.jpg
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MYCELIUM SURFBOARD beach, Haute-Innovation.com
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MYCELIUM SURFBOARD fin, mushroom, tip, bodyboard, Streamer.co.il
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Mycelium by Rob Hille, WikiMedia.org
 
Loxley Clovis
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"Scientists have found evidence of what could be the oldest fungal life on the planet, discovering traces of microfossils buried in ancient volcanic rock dating from some 2.4 billion years back.
...  if confirmed, it wouldn't just rank as the world's oldest known fungi, but could make scientists have to rethink a few things on how early life on Earth came about.
... Up until now, previous geological evidence for fungi only extended as far back as 385 million years ago, but the fossilised traces of microscopic creatures found in the volcanic rock were a whole 2 billion years older.
... But the biggest implications of the research could be that it suggests fungi may have evolved under the sea, rather than on land as previously thought.
... The team suggests the fungus-like organism may have existed in symbiosis with other microbes, somehow using chemically stored energy to stay alive."
- Scientists think they might have found the world's oldest fungus buried under South Africa, ScienceAlert.com
ORIGINAL SOURCE: Fungus-like mycelial fossils in 2.4-billion-year-old vesicular basalt, Nature.com, 24 April 2017
OLDEST_2.4_billion-y.o._fungus_Calcite-and_chlorite-filled_fracture_with_filamentous_fossils_in_Ongeluk_vesicular_basalt-_petrographic_thin_section-_Swedish_Museum_of_Natural_History_X6133-_Nature.com.jpg
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2.4 billion year old fungus Calcite and chlorite-filled fracture with filamentous fossils in O0ngeluk vesicular basalt, petrographic thin section, Swedish Museum of Natural History X6133, Nature.com
OLDEST_2.4_billion-y.o._fungus_fossil_location_Geological_map_and_stratigraphic_section-_Griqualand_West_sub-basin-_Agouron_drill_hole-_Nature.com.jpg
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2.4 billion year old fungus fossil location Geological map and stratigraphic section, Griqualand West sub-basin, Agouron drill hole, Nature.com
OLDEST_2.4_billion-y.o._fungus_Ongeluk_vesicle_with_filamentous_fossils-_SRXTM_surface-volume_renderings-_Swedish_Museum_of_Natural_History_X6137-_Nature.com.jpg
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2.4 billion year old fungus Ongeluk vesicle with filamentous fossils, SRXTM surface-volume renderings, Swedish Museum of Natural History X6137, Nature.com
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2.4 billion year old fungus Ongeluk vesicular basalt with filamentous fossils, petrographic thin sections, Nature.com
 
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Nick Kitchener wrote:I saw this the other day...



A fungi that grows in salty sand!
Psathyrella ammophila



No way! Obviously, that is a fairy resort and those are their beach umbrellas!
 
Deb Stephens
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Loxley Clovis wrote:
Folks should always be aware when eating anything -not just in the fungi kingdom- from the wild. For example, a novice forager might not know the identity & poisonous properties of hemlock (conium maculatum) or a blowfish (tetraodontidae).



This is very important! Last year I finally made my husband understand that the so-called "cow parsley" invading our old garden area was, in fact, poison hemlock. I had to pick leaves and stems from several related plants (all looking like, or actually, parsley) and point out the minute details of each--then show him a couple of youtube videos I found on the dangers of misidentifying hemlock before he would give in and admit he was wrong. It isn't that I wanted to be right, but that I did NOT want to be dead! Apparently, he had actually added a few small leaf-tips from the hemlock to a wild salad he picked one evening!!! (Without telling me.) I'm really not sure why we were not poisoned, but all I can figure is that the growth was brand new and at the very top of the plant--maybe the toxin was not strong enough there to affect us. I know that many toxic plants, like pokeweed, for example, can be eaten sparingly if you limit intake to the small, new leaves or leaf tips AND consume very small quantities. However, I do not plan to repeat that particular experiment, and now my husband won't either!
 
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"Mycoremediation (from ancient Greek μύκης (mukēs), meaning "fungus" and the suffix -remedium, in Latin meaning 'restoring balance') is a form of bioremediation in which fungi-based technology is used to decontaminate the environment. Fungi have been proven to be a very cheap, effective and environmentally sound way for helping to remove a wide array of toxins from damaged environments or wastewater. The toxins include heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, leather tanning industry chemicals and wastewater, petroleum fuels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and herbicide,[1] in land, sweet water and marine environments.
1. Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A.; Purohit, Hemant J. (2016). "Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 56 (3): 247–264. doi:10.1007/s12088-016-0584-6. ISSN 0046-8991. PMC 4920763 Freely accessible. PMID 27407289."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycoremediation
MYCOREMEDIATION-Fairy_Rings_boat-_Janmun.com.jpg
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Mycoremediation Fairy Rings boat, Janmun.com
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Mycoremediation Fairy Rings in water, Janmun.com
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Mycoremediation Mushroom eats oil, WaldenEffect.org
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Mycoremediation Paul Stamets, LexiconOfFood.com
 
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Do you have plant-parasitic nematodes (eg. root-knot nematodes) in your soil? Fungi may be the solution...
First image:

David Moore wrote:Constricting rings of Drechslerella snap shut. When a nematode enters a constricting ring the three ring cells (A) are triggered to swell inwards within 1 to 2 seconds and firmly lasso the victim; the cells inflate to maximum size, which is an approximate threefold increase in cell volume, within 0.1 second, with the swelling of the ring cells being strictly inward (B). The constricted rings clamp the prey firmly (C). Think, for a moment, what that description means in terms of (a) the sensory and signal transduction system that detects the presence of the nematode, (b) the reaction system that generates a burst of metabolic activity to create the osmotic potential and transport the water to inflate the cells and the localised modification of cell wall architecture that directs the morphological expansion to the interior of the loop.


Second image:

Nordbring-Hertz wrote:Nematode-trapping devices. A. Scanning electron micrograph of typical adhesive network trap of Arthrobotrys oligospora, bar = 10 µm. B. Light micrograph of a nematode captured in an adhesive network trap of A. oligospora, bar = 20 µm. C. Light micrograph of conidial traps of A. oligospora, induced by the inclusion of peptides in the agar used to germinate the spores, bar = 20 µm.


Third image:

Prof. Xingzhong Liu and Dr Ence Yang wrote:Natural nematode-trapping devices. A, adhesive network (an), the most widely distributed trap. B, adhesive knob (ak) with nonconstricting rings ncr. C, adhesive column (ac) is a short erect branch consisting of a few swollen cells produced on a hypha. D, constricting ring (cr), the most sophisticated trapping device, captures prey actively; when a nematode enters a constricting ring, the three ring cells are triggered to swell rapidly inwards and firmly lasso the victim within 1 to 2 second. The ring at upper left in panel D has been triggered, that at bottom right is an unsprung trap. Scale bars = 10 μm.


Source: Nematode-trapping fungi, 21st Century Guidebook to Fungi by David Moore, Geoffrey D. Robson and Anthony P. J. Trinci
NEMATODE-TRAPPER-fungal_trapping_snapping_rings_of_Dreschslerella-_by_Nordbring-Hertz-_Elsevier-_DavidMoore.org.uk.jpg
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Dreschslerella snap trap rings, by Nordbring-Hertz, Elsevier, DavidMoore.org.uk
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Arthrobotrys oligospora trapping constricting rings, by Nordbring-Hertz, Elsevier, DavidMoore.org.uk
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Nematode trapping fungal constricting rings, by Prof. Xingzhong Liu and Dr Ence Yang, DavidMoore.org.uk
 
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