I don't have time to say too much, but I think chestnuts should be at the top of your list. While it's true that the American chestnut has been decimated by blight, there are some cultivars becoming available that are resistant, and there are crosses with chestnuts from other continents which are very resistant and have larger nuts, too.
Black locust, while it doesn't have much edible on it (the ephemeral flowers are supposed to be edible, but my trees are too tall for me to be able to reach the blossoms. I have some young trees growing up, and maybe someday we'll get a chance to try eating the flowers), does have extremely rot-resistant wood which has many uses. It is also very easy to grow, and casts a light shade which would be great as an overstory with plants underneath that don't care much for full sun. They can also be coppiced, potentially providing a steady supply of poles and small-diameter firewood, and black locust makes very good firewood. Black locust is also suitable for a great many different regions and climates, growing across much of the United States, even in dry climates.
If I have a chance, I'll come back later and add more.
Spruce...Spruce gum is a gum that never loses its flavor and stays chewy until your great Grandchildren are in College...and it makes a nice tea as well.
Beech...not only does it attract deer for hunting purposes, but since the leaves stay on the trees all winter long you can have something to wipe with while going #2 in the forest. Everyone laughs until it is February 4th, snow is a foot deep, and you just made your own "log" and you would kill for beech leaves. Incidentally basswood and their big leaves are great in the summer for this.
Maple: Maple syrup anyone?
Yellow Birch: You can drink a minty tea right out of the tree in Spring. You can set the bark on fire in the dead of winter for the most spectacular fireworks display, and it makes the hardest baseball bats. (they no longer use ash for this reason)