If you plant the seeds of the basil now, they will grow until the first cold weather. Not the first frost, but somewhere a little above freezing. People in cold climates commonly grow basil in pots indoors over the winter. You could also grow it outdoors and take only a small cutting indoors for the winter.
I wouldn't classify sabilo (which google says is the plant we call aloe) as not useful. If nothing else, it's a good plant to have on hand for basic sunburn care. I don't think a basil plant would be happy in the same soil, though. Basil tends to like rich moist soil and a moist soil is one of the few things that will kill an aloe.
Something to help you decide what to plant there instead is to look at the growing zones a plant comes from. Typically, a plant grown in a pot needs to be winter hardy at least one full zone beyond where it actually is.
Are you looking for plants that can season your food or more like fruits and vegetables? How much does the appearance matter? What Purposes beyond eating would you like these plants to have?
Then there's the question of how big is big in your mind. Pots that I consider big are large enough to hold a citrus tree. Citrus can be wonderfully productive in a pot, along with being an attractive evergreen shrub that has amazingly fragrant flowers at a time of the year when not much else blooms.
If you know anyone who gardens, a lot of really good culinary herbs can be grown from cuttings (thyme, sage, rosemary, chives, garlic chives, to name a few in my garden) Most herbs would grow well in the same soils that support aloes. If your winters are mild (or if you have a few weeks till killing frosts) fall is a good time to plant perennials because they will focus on establishing strong roots before having to suffer through a summer.
If you want to grow vegetables (or want to grow something while you make long term plans) then you need to know your average first frost date and the days to maturity of the plants you're looking at. Count back the from the frost date to determine if it's likely that the plant can produce before the first freeze.
I can also think of a few vegetables that are popular for winter growth. In my winters we grow lots of leafy greens like kale, fava beans, garlic. Unless you have really harsh winters, these can be grown outside all winter long with nothing more than a little covering during deep freezes. In my climate we don't even need to cover them.
Hopefully something in here is useful to you. You might have noticed that I start a lot of comments with 'if' Most things that relate to gardening can be very specific to where the garden is. You may want to ask a moderator to add this thread to your regional forum. You also could try updating your public profile with some general location. People near that area may pitch in with more specific regional recommendations. I know I have favorite places to shop for plants in this area that are only useful to my locals.
I would suggest lettuce and radishes as they are perfect for containers and don't take up too much space. I'd also like to suggest garlic and chives but I don't know when to plant them. But the containers can always be moved inside if frost is predicted.
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