I had never heard about this until today. I saw some horrific video and found numerous negative accounts of the practice.
This is cut from Wikipedia. There's lots more. Seems like a horrible practice to me.
In modern gavage-based foie gras production, force-feeding takes place for between 17 and 30 days before slaughter.
Geese and ducks show avoidance behaviour (indicating aversion) of the person who feeds them and the feeding procedure. Although an EU committee in 1998 reported seeing this aversion, they noted that at the time, there was no "conclusive" scientific evidence on the aversive nature of force-feeding. The AVMA (Animal Welfare Division) when considering foie gras production stated "The relatively new Mulard breed used in foie gras production seems to be more prone than its parent breeds to fear of people".
An EU committee in 1998 reported that there was usually clear evidence of tissue damage in the oesophagus of birds which had been gavage fed, although one 1972 study cited by the report observed no alteration of the oesophageal tissue. More recent scientific studies have shown that the esophagus of birds can be injured or inflamed by gavage feeding.
After measuring a range of physiological parameters in male Mulard ducks, it was concluded in one study that the acute stress caused by force feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras. A similar study on Muscovy ducks found that gavage feeding was related to an increase in panting behaviour and serum corticosterone levels, indicating increased stress attributable to this feeding method.
Housing and husbandry
In France, at the end of 2015, individual cages were prohibited to improve animal welfare. They will be replaced by cages which house 4 to 5 birds.
During the force-feeding period, the birds are kept in individual cages, with wire or plastic mesh floors, or sometimes in small groups on slatted floors. Individual caging restricts movements and behaviours by preventing the birds from standing erect, turning around, or flapping their wings. Birds cannot carry out other natural waterfowl behaviours, such as bathing and swimming. Furthermore, ducks and geese are social animals and individual cages prevent such interactions.
During the force feeding period, when the birds are not being fed, they are sometimes kept in near darkness; this prevents normal investigatory behaviour and results in poor welfare.
Lesions can occur on the sternum of the birds due to necrosis of the skin. This is observed more frequently in birds reared in cages rather than on the floor. The prevalence is higher in Mulard ducks (40–70%) compared to under 6% in Muscovy ducks. This is due to the larger pectoralis profundus major and minor muscles in Muscovy ducks compared to Mulards. The relatively new Mulard breed used in foie gras production seems more prone to developing lesions in the area of the sternum when kept in small cages, and to bone breakage during transport and slaughter.
Where ducks are fattened in group pens, it has been suggested that the increased effort required to capture and restrain ducks in pens might cause them to experience more stress during force feeding. Injuries and fatalities during transport and slaughter occur in all types of poultry production, however, fattened ducks are more susceptible to conditions such as heat stress.
Foie gras production results in the bird's liver being swollen. In some species of ducks, liver size changes seasonally, increasing by as much as 30 to 50%, with more pronounced changes in females. However, foie gras production enlargens the livers up to 10 times their normal size. This impairs liver function due to obstructing blood flow, and expands the abdomen making it difficult for the birds to breathe. Death occurs if the force-feeding is continued.
The mortality rate in force-fed birds varies from 2% to 4%, compared with approximately 0.2% in age-matched, non-force-fed drakes. Mortality rates do not differ between the force-feeding period and the previous rearing phase, with both being approximately 2.5%.
I've been looking at electric blankets. There are some that plug into regular household power, and others that are 12 volt. Both use a miniscule amount of power. For me, once the bed is warm, I'm good for the night. All night warmth, for a penny.
Milwaukee and other cordless tool makers, sell 12 volt jackets. That would be awesome when I go to jobs where car camping is necessary. There is a hand warming feature. Great for hands, snacks and keeping electrical tape warm.
The last photo shows me camping in snowy conditions, with no heat at all. Got so hot that I had to remove some blankets.
Lack of trees in Kevin's location, is presumably about lack of precipitation. Once established, trees and bushes become snow and dew traps, which effectively raises the precipitation in that area. Rock piles also trap dew and snow. They also protect the soil from direct sunlight. It makes sense to place debris near the fence line, where a natural hedgerow can develop. If posts puncture hardpan, the edge could provide a route for young trees to follow.
I think most wars that have been fought, throughout history, could be considered trade wars in some way. I think that applies to the more recent foreign adventures of the United States, if you consider that Osama Bin Ladens main issue was concerned with distribution of wealth from Saudi oil. I'd like Canada to join the OPEC. We're sitting on a lot of oil.
We were told lots of bad things about Muammar Gaddafi. The African League is an organization that Muammar wanted to turn into a sort of OPEC for mineral producing countries. He was the most important member of that group. A cartel like this, could become the most important organization in the world. I believe that is why Muammar Gaddafi is dead.
I think your land may be a perfect candidate for a mixture of long raised beds, between ponds. Your water temperature will be suitable for carp and hopefully other more valuable fish. Azolla blooms could be used to feed poultry or other animals and to fertilize the hills. You'd get duckweed in the cooler season. There are several types of wild rice that could grow along the margins.
A felt cowboy hat is warm in winter, cool in summer. They are good at keeping both sun and rain off of your head. If you get one that fits properly, it looks cool all year. This one cost $0.50 at a yard sale. It disappeared last year.
I was told to smile for this picture, but I don't follow directions generally.
I don't think that Walmart has different prices for different stores. They are useful to me, only if I want junk food. I don't buy their clothing, tools, food, or electronics. Low quality is the issue.
I will sometimes buy kitchen and bathroom stuff. If the brand is the same, I'm not willing to pay a penny more, to get it elsewhere.
Walmart probably gets 2% of my retail business. Various organic markets get about 60%, and makers of superior tools get much of the rest.
I find most of my soap, shampoo, spices, cleaning supplies, light bulbs ... in houses that I demolish. Some of it probably came from Walmart. I prefer higher end stuff, but beggars ... Last month an ocean front house produced organic olive oil and 50 spices. Shopping, without the troublesome issue of having to pay.
I coat the south-facing slope of my hugelkultur with coffee grounds. It heats earlier in spring. Slugs become entangled in the dry material. Snakes bask on the dark surface, and are able to start their day of feeding earlier than on the landscape surrounding. I think the smell might put certain bugs off of their game.
I've gathered several tons of it at Starbucks and Tim Hortons coffee shops. The material often comes with lots of filters included. They are placed over small patches of weeds, then heavy material is dumped on top.
It is about twice as valuable as cow manure, nutrient wise. Weed seeds can survive being roasted and the ground and having hot water poured over them. A very suitable material for early starts.
I'd like to see many more things produced locally. I think the number one way to do this would be to have huge tariffs on things that are typically produced elsewhere. I don't care what that does to the economy anywhere, or who loses money. We could call it a fuel tax or a carbon tax or whatever. If it gets shipped across the planet, tax the hell out of it.
At my local supermarket, the least expensive lamb is from New Zealand and the least expensive fruit is often from Chile. I'm in Canada, so there's some distance involved. A distance tax would raise the prices on those foreign products.
But distance isn't everything. It takes about one tenth of a kilogram of fuel to ship a kilogram of lamb from New Zealand. If it were grown organically, it would still be a far better choice than stuff growing right down the street. Some meats produced right here, take 3 Kg of fuel per kilogram of finished meat.
I was rather surprised to learn, that wild caught fish, averages 1 kg of diesel burned for every kilogram of fish landed, as a worldwide average. Farmed tilapia from India is often grown using less than 1/100 of a kilogram of fuel per kilogram of fish produced. So, in this case, the farmed fish from Halfway Around the World, is less environmentally harmful, than many other choices.
So, I'm in favor of taxing out the most wasteful choice, no matter where that product is from.
Another thing for me is environmental standards and labor standards. Unless those standards are somewhat equivalent, we can't have any sort of real fair trade. I'd be happy to pay much more for products from places that are polluting themselves to death. This would tend to punish bad behavior and reward manufacturers and countries who are doing a better job.
Hey John. Do you have a thread concerning that stove. I'd be interested to see it. It looks like poured concrete but I'm going to assume that it's a perlite mix or something else meant to take the heat.
I went up to look at some tools that were advertised, and discovered a door that I sold 2 years ago. It is now part of a new home.
The diffuser will prevent junk from being sucked into my pump. I needed to a sleeve, to make somewhere for the diffuser to attach to the pipe. The sleeve from my plumbers tape was laying there, and I clicked it on. It attached so firmly that I wasn't able to remove it. A perfect fit.
I like Glen's advice concerning the handles. One of my pet peeves with anything made of clay, is if little attention is paid to the pouring mechanism, for jugs, teapots etc. I often see straight wire cuts that allow liquid to run down the side of the vessel.
I imagine it would be incredibly difficult to make a living out of cups and bowls. Perhaps some specialty, that sells for much more. I've seen some really nice bonsai containers, that look like they are one-off originals.
20 years ago, I sold firebrick to several people who were building their own kilns. Even the most skilled of them, had to switch to other things as the market turned away from pottery toward glass.
Spent coffee grounds are quite inert in the beginning. Although they have nutrient value, it takes some time for the woody texture to break down. No weed seed could survive being roasted, ground up and having hot water poured on it. It doesn't bind really well, so perhaps something could be done about that, but it is otherwise a suitable medium.
25. Potato tower I checked it out and painting stainless is quite a process, which involves etching compound.
26. Strawberry Tower. Grow them in the opening and along the sides. Use a grinder to make some horizontal cuts. Bend the material slightly outward. It will look slick and the shiny surface may confuse bugs. I've been looking for a project to put in my pond. I want to have a floating raft with wicks that dip into the water. This may thwart the efforts of deer and rabbits. They love strawberries.
The same here in Canada. They also function as an emergency light.
Any phone that has ever been activated, works as a 911 phone.
They can also function as a computer and go on the internet via hundreds of free WiFi locations. There's a guy who has worked for me, who pays nothing for a phone, but he makes free calls all over the world through WhatsApp, for free.
Plans start at around $30 per month, which is less than one hour of work for the average Victoria worker. Minimum wage is 10 something.
À friend called at 4 am. I went back to sleep. Probably shouldn't have.
I wonder if you've considered lilac. It has the hardness you want, it produces high-quality fuel, it can be grown very densely, with young branches that can be woven and it is probably one of the heavier nectar producers that could grow in your environment. It might end up being more of a hedgerow than a fence, but a very useful hedgerow.
I have seen lilac covered in wild grapes. The combination was difficult for me to climb through, when I was a little kid. I don't imagine that deer would want to enter such confined quarters.
Bryant RedHawk wrote:When I first saw this, I immediately thought of using one for mash separation, grains on inside, set it a second tub then lift once the wash is ready.
I love all the other ideas too.
Bryant's idea makes 20.
I've seen juicers that have a perforated tub that uses a finely perforated vinyl sheet, to prevent solids from passing, as the material is spun. I wonder if a similar mesh could be used, to better filter your material.
21. Giant blender or juicer. Get some large juicer blades, and blend commercial quantities of applesauce or what have you. A stainless steel lawn mower blade, would seem about right. Not to be operated by children, or most adults.
22. Lawn roller. Fill it with concrete, to create a lawn roller. Be sure to get the axle assembly centered, before you pour in the concrete. Or, something could be bolted on while the concrete is green hard. Two or more good be joined.
23. Lawn aerator. Pretty much the same idea as a roller, except that the number of the holes would be enlarged, to allow bolts to protrude. As the thing is dragged along, the bolts that dig into the ground, causing a little holes to be pressed.
24. Gabion basket. This would make a good gabion basket for placing a fence post or gate post. Sometimes, you don't want to put in a fence post or can't, because of near surface bedrock. Center your post in the tub, and fill it up with rubble rock or any other heavy material. Fill it beyond full, for maximum holding capacity. Put one of these on each side of your entry to the driveway, so that the space is clearly defined at night. That will keep some people out of the ditch. It should make it easy to give directions. "Watch for the two shiny wash tubs, that hold up the black and white reflector poles."
The gabion baskets in the photo, are very utilitarian. I much prefer the shiny tubs.
18. Vegetable and Herb dryer - Paint It Black, and run a number of hanging wires through the holes, so that herbs can be hung. A flat plate could be set on the bottom , for things that don't want to hang. Another large plate could be sad over the top hole, as a lid. Load it up with things that are okay to be in the Sun, or cover them lately with a towel.
Plug up any big holes, so that we don't get too much sun on the material being dried. Set it on hot asphalt, or place it in any other warm and sunny location.
The number of holes, just about guarantees even drying. If laid on hot asphalt, or the dark bed of a truck, it will really cook, since the stainless will conduct heat from whatever surface it's sitting on.
They are small enough, to be carried inside, once full. They could also be brought outside during the day, and inside at night. Leave it in front of the picture window on a rainy day. Stackable as well, as illustrated in one of the earlier pictures.
19. Fish washer dishwasher. Some of you may recall my fish washer dishwasher. I expect it to go mainstream anytime now. For those unfamiliar, it involves lowering a vessel full of dirty dishes, into pond water so that the critters can eat it up. My experiment went quite well.
https://permies.com/t/40/27219/permaculture-home-care-cleaning/purity/Invented-Cleaning-Dishwasher-soap-electricity Because of the many holes, the fish washer dishwasher will readily sink and when it is retrieved, it will the drain out as the basket is lifted. Put a post near the pond, that allows a pole to be saddled on top. Use your body weight to raise the dishwasher basket, then swivel so that it rests over the pond. Gently lower the device. Let me know tomorrow morning how it worked. :-)
Ever since my family started line drying our laundry exclusively, I've been looking for a way to manage the old gas (propane) dryer. I turned my old one's housing into a cold smoke chamber for smoking hams. I like the idea of using the drum for a fire pit or garden center piece. Nice find
The video shows a guy cutting bottles. He is using a wet saw, which usually prevents glass particles from becoming airborne. I have been on many job sites, where this sort of saw is used. Sometimes, the material does become airborne. That's because people are foolish in disposing of the sludge that accumulates in the bottom of the water bath. If it's just dumped out on the ground, it will dry out, and be whipped around by the wind. The safest place to get rid of this, is in the footing or mixed with concrete.
The small particles of glass are very destructive to clothing. Sometimes the person doing the cutting, will continue to wear those clothes after they are dried out, so that that person is now shedding little particles of glass, wherever they go.
I have taken a similar bottle, and scored the cut line deeply. This usually allows the glass to snap in the right spot. The process is faster, once you get good at it, it doesn't require any power tools, and it doesn't create millions of little pieces of glass, to contaminate our lungs.
I suspect that the material is not strong enough on its own, for cider pressing, but with wooden staves attached to the outside, with steel banding, it just might be. It would be like a barrel, with a stainless steel interior. It would sure spin a lot of salad.
We need to examine what can be done with them when they are cut up. The material from dryers has many little holes in it. Some washers have large areas with no holes, that have a dimple design. I think this is to make them like a washboard.
17. Let's cut out rectangular pieces and build real washboards, for the totally off-grid crowd. If further dimpling is required, it can be accomplished by using a very smooth punch, from the back side. Hit it just enough to cause a dimple, we don't want to tear the material, since that would result in torn clothing.
Side note. I have a washboard stomach. It is different than most, in that I keep it under an inch of fat, to keep it warm. :-)
11. Winnowing trommel. Set it up to rotate, so that seeds can bounce around and lose chaff. It would have to be for a larger seeds, since the small ones would fall out of the holes.
12. Trundle peeler. Large restaurants have machines that bounce potatoes and carrots around, in the presence of water, to peel them. They don't come out completely peeled, but they do come out super clean, and ready to chop up. If the bottom were placed in a tub of water and a tub were rotated, tough things like potatoes could be cleaned up quite a bit. You would never do this before putting them into storage, since they would decay quickly. This is a treatment that greatly reduces the labor, when preparing meals for a crowd. The drum could be pricked with a nail and hundreds of spots, to make it rough like a cheese grater.
This guy has the right idea, but he could produce a lot more doing it in a giant stainless drum.
A series of these recycled stainless steel laundry drums, could be used in different parts of the farm. They are strong enough to allow other stuff to be piled on top. With a tray placed beneath, you could capture rich juices.
When old washers and dryers are scrapped, the stainless steel is usually in perfectly good shape. It is one of the most durable products made.
I've seen several of these used as planters and for fire pits. One was used for storing firewood.
Let's think of some other uses.
1. Storage of root vegetables - Because these drain so well, they seem like a good addition to the root cellar. Carrots and beets and other things that are packed in sand, could be enclosed in these tubs. Make a good lid, and these would be impervious to vermin. Rats and mice will sometimes chew right through chicken wire and of course any plastic or wooden container. They can't chew through stainless steel.
2. Pond filtration - Tubs like this could be filled with suitable aggregate, to allow the filtration of greywater. They could also serve as a pre-filter, for water that is being pumped.
3. Aquatic flower pot - If a pot like this were set in such a way that just a couple inches protrudes from the water surface, those plants would be able to access nutrient from the water, but fish would not be able to attack the plants.
4. French drain - One of these could be placed in the ground, in areas where you want to dump water on the grass and have it drain to somewhere. My soil is so porous, that I wouldn't need anything more than the drum, but some might want to surround it with gravel or rubble. It works as a great filter to keep sticks and leaves from clogging up the system.
5. Irrigation - I want to try one of these on a hugelkultur mound. With one of these sunk into the ground at the top of the mound, the water could seep into the soil slowly, instead of running down the face, which causes erosion. The bottom could be filled with clay, so that water must run out the sides. I envision leaving only a 1 inch rim above the soil surface. They could also be used on level ground. This would allow the watering of the root zone of larger plants, without wetting the surface.
6. Miniature compost bin - This has the advantage of being quite breathable while also impervious to vermin, if it has a good lid.
7. Compost tea strainer - Load it up with compost and run some water through it.
8. Strainer for just about everything else - Slowly run the garden hose into this, as you wash vegetables. Smaller vegetables won't go down the drain, as happens sometimes.
9. Dryer for corn, beans and other seeds - After seeds are pretty much dry, they could be placed inside one of these, with a good lid. Air could still circulate, to dry them further, but mice and rats would be out of luck.
My first experience with firewood behind glass, was in an attached sunspace. Many hoses get to dry in the winter. Wood that is shedding moisture, helps to alleviate that, as it becomes more useful in the stove.
Old freezers that are given a rubber liner and glass top, are the perfect spot for us Northerners to try raising tilapia or other warm water fish.
If the wood is perfectly dry at the end of August, I suppose the lid could be closed tightly , to lock out any moisture gain.
I found something about brooder stoves on YouTube. Apparently they can be set for a certain temperature, so that when the temperature drops below a certain point more air is allowed into the feed.
If I were going to construct a stove, for the purpose of brooding, it would be a rocket mass heater with a low enough bench for the chicks to climb up on, or just a heated section of floor. Usually these benches are hotter at one end than at the other, so that each bird could choose the spot most comfortable for them. The temperatures typical of a metal stove, could easily singe little feathers, if they were to crowd around it and someone gets pushed. A cob version, would not have any spots more than 150 degrees. Most importantly, a cob version could be fired once a day, and then left alone.
A metal stove will radiate heat in all directions. Baby chicks are quite short, so they won't benefit from any heated surface that isn't something they can stand on. Hot air can float away. With a heated surface to stand on, they have the opportunity to move closer and to sit together huddled.
Heated cob will evaporate the moisture from droppings. The chicks would be able to have clean dry feet. Wet feet are cold feet, generally.
I think horse chestnuts are inedible enough, to call them poisonous. Even the name chestnut is not correct. They are known as buckeye in some areas. Their use as soap, does not compete with any food use. Edible chestnuts have no value as soap.
For many people, a greenhouse is only useful for a couple months, at the start of the season. It's too hot in the summer, and too expensive to heat in the winter. I've always thought it's more efficient to put lots of time into the garden, during the season when things want to grow outside.
So how do we turn a greenhouse into a 12-month building?
I was listening to Paul on a video that dealt with wood stove efficiency. He mentioned that people don't use kiln-dried wood. But we could. A greenhouse is not unlike a solar wood kiln. I have dried wood under glass, and it works great. The material dries so fast, that there is more cracking, which leads to even faster drying. Most importantly, it stays dry.
Many people take the time to stack their wood properly and then keep it covered, so the rain doesn't get on it, during the fall and winter.
That system may work on the cold dry prairies. Where I live in coastal British Columbia, the air is often near 100% humidity, during the heating season. Dry firewood is like a sponge, sucking up moisture, as air blows through it. So, the same nice airy pile, that allowed the wood to dry, now helps moisture to reenter the wood.
The solution is to have a really dry place to store it. Although we get most of our rain during the heating season, there are still lots of days when the sun shines and moisture is evaporated from green houses. Wood stored inside, is able to be maintained in a quite dry condition.
Glass and heavy blocks of wood are not compatible. Therefore, we need a fence. Chain link fence stretched along the length of the greenhouse, with a small gap between the fence and the glass, would allow the wood to be stacked without endangering the glass. I used a similar system at one time, without causing any damage. If the greenhouse is large enough, the gap could be a couple feet wide, so that a heat loving vine could be grown there in the summer. Passion fruit, pole beans and luffa are a few examples. After the crop is finished, let the soil dry out, so that it doesn't add moisture to the wood. Don't try to grow things during the period when light and temperature are not conducive. There will still be many days, in the middle of the heating season, when the sun shows itself for a few hours, and moisture is baked out of the wood. It would be important to seal up the gaps, so that moist air or fog are not allowed to flow freely through the dry wood.
This greenhouse does not need to be glass all around. A single south facing wall, will gather lots of heat. We're not trying to grow plants. I like the idea of going three-sided with the glass, and maybe just the length of one patio door, on the Southern portion of a shed style roof. This would allow the summer crop along the fence to get plenty of light.
Patio door glass is available for free in many parts of the world, when thermal units fail or older units are replaced with the latest version. It's the only type of glass I consider for large expanses.
When spring arrives, and you'd like to use the greenhouse for garden starts, haul the remaining wood into the mud room of the house, or to some other dry place. Now it's okay to make the greenhouse moist for a few months.
After the garden starts have been put in, load the back of the greenhouse with green firewood. It will help with greenhouse humidity for a while. It will reach its driest, in the fall, after the vine crops are removed and all watering is stopped. In my area, that's about six weeks before the heating season begins.
I have had good success in drying small dimension wood for a masonry stove , in as little as 2 weeks, when it's placed under glass. A system like this, would allow additions to the wood supply, right up until the beginning of the heating season.
It would be handy to have to door, one on the east and one on the west side of the building. Start loading the place close to the door that is closest to the house. That way, when it's time to start heating, the driest wood will also be the most accessible. Stuff that is added immediately before or during the heating season can be stacked furthest from the house.
Cold frames. We don't all have a nice greenhouse. Many of us have cold frames. It works pretty much the same way. After plants go in the garden, crack the lid for a week or so and let the soil really dry out. Load it with firewood and keep the lid cracked until it's nice and dry. That can be one week in good conditions. Small spaces get incredibly hot, when the sun can get in and there is little air flow.
I see the indigenous inhabitants of the Pacific Northwest, were mentioned in regards to a society that had fair distribution and little hierarchy. I suppose that might have been true for some tribe, at some point in their history. I recall seeing a ceremonial slave killing axe at the museum. So, there was slavery and slave killing. I'm guessing that involved some sort of hierarchy. :-)
I have found cast iron pans, inside crack houses that I am tearing down. Three of them had quite a quantity of food in them, that was allowed to sit for months. It was a moldy mess. I scraped out the crap, and put them all in the oven, with it set on the cleaning cycle. It all flaked off, and I was effectively working with new pans again.
I have a relative who used to call me out to look at the cheapest properties in the MLS book. He always wanted an opinion on what it was worth. In most cases I would tell him that it's worth lot value, minus the cost of removing this building. He was always unhappy with the answer. Eventually, he bought one that we didn't look at together. He paid 150,000 for dilapidated place, then spent another 125,000 on repairs. He put in hundreds of unlogged work hours. When he was all done, he had a house that was worth about $200,000.
I think this is an aside to the main discussion here. It's been my observation that economic systems attempt to reward us according to our usefulness. At least that's what I imagine a pure form of capitalism would look like.
But there's a huge problem with that. As technology continues to advance, more and more people become effectively useless. I know people who are worth $50 an hour, and I know people who just aren't worth $2 an hour, no matter what you get them to do. Most people can't live a decent life in this city, if they make less than $20 an hour. Of course, it helps if people can find their niche, but many just don't. So, productive people contribute to the upkeep of non producers. And I'm not just talking about welfare. My children have had teachers who were wonderful people and were great at their job. They had two teachers who should have never been put in front of children. There's a union. If a teacher doesn't molest a child, they will be with us until they turn 65.
I have been in charge of the utterly useless, on many occasions. Guys who were dead slow, who would steal, or just screw up so often, that they cost more in damaged materials and tools, than in wages. I believe the pool of this type is growing. The power of the underclass used to be that they were needed in some way. Therefore, they could revolt and something would have to be done to accommodate them. When I think of guys like Mike, who worked for me for a few hours last year, it wouldn't matter if there were 10 million like him, even this large cohort would be, or should be powerless, since they have nothing to offer the rest of society. So, what do we do about that?
If the pool of people, who simply aren't needed, continues to grow, how do we maintain them at some humane level of existence? And who pays for it? I don't want to. I want a system where those like Mike are forced to become useful, so that I don't have to provide them with anything. But Mike is very empowered. He's very keen on making sure that his rights aren't trampled on. He believes that he has a right to all of the things that useful people have, even as he refuses to develop skills or personal habits that might make him less of a burden.