This classic American cooking reference includes 1,849 recipes, including everything from “after-dinner coffee”—which Farmer notes is beneficial for a stomach “overtaxed by a hearty meal”—to “Zigaras à la Russe,” an elegant puff-pastry dish. Bartleby.com chose the 1918 edition because it was the last edition of the cookbook authored completely by Farmer.
The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book Link will bring you to the free online copy of the book:
Here are some excerpts and recipes:
The daily average ration of an adult requires 41/2 oz. protein, 18 oz. starch, 2 oz. fat, 5 pints water
About one-third of the water is taken in our food, the remainder as a beverage. To keep in health and do the best mental and physical work, authorities agree that a mixed diet is suited for temperate climates. Women, even though they do the same amount of work as men, as a rule require less food. Brain workers should take their protein in a form easily digested. In consideration of this fact, fish and eggs form desirable substitutes for meat. The working man needs quantity as well as quality, that the stomach may have something to act upon. Corned beef, cabbage, brown-bread, and pastry, will not overtax his digestion. In old age the digestive organs lessen in activity, and the diet should be almost as simple as that of a child, increasing the amount of carbohydrates and decreasing the amount of proteins and fat. Many diseases which occur after middle life are due to eating and drinking such foods as were indulged in during vigorous manhood.
Salt: The amount found in food is not always sufficient; therefore salt is used as a condiment. It assists digestion, inasmuch as it furnishes chlorine for hydrochloric acid found in gastric juice.
Frying: Great care should be taken in frying that fat is of the right temperature; otherwise food so cooked will absorb fat. Nearly all foods which do not contain eggs are dipped in flour or crumbs, egg, and crumbs, before frying. The intense heat of fat hardens the albumen, thus forming a coating which prevents food from “soaking fat.” When meat or fish is to be fried, it should be kept in a warm room for some time previous to cooking, and wiped as dry as possible. If cold, it decreases the temperature of the fat to such extent that a coating is not formed quickly enough to prevent fat from penetrating the food. The ebullition of fat is due to water found in food to be cooked. Great care must be taken that too much is not put into the fat at one time, not only because it lowers the temperature of the fat, but because it causes it to bubble and go over the sides of the kettle. It is not fat that boils, but water which fat has received from food. All fried food on removal from fat should be drained on brown paper.
Braising is stewing and baking (meat). Meat to be braised is frequently first sautéd to prevent escape of much juice in the gravy. The meat is placed in a pan with a small quantity of stock or water, vegetables (carrot, turnip, celery, and union) cut in pieces, salt, pepper, and sweet herbs. The pan should have a tight-fitting cover. Meat so prepared should be cooked in an oven at low uniform temperature for a long time. This is an economical way of cooking, and the only way besides stewing or boiling of making a large piece of tough meat palatable and digestible.
Coffee: Coffee taken in moderation quickens action of the heart, acts directly upon the nervous system, and assists gastric digestion. Fatigue of body and mind are much lessened by moderate use of coffee; severe exposure to cold can be better endured by the coffee drinker. In times of war, coffee has proved more valuable than alcoholic stimulants to keep up the enduring power of soldiers. Coffee must be taken in moderation; its excessive use means palpitation of the heart, tremor, insomnia, and nervous prostration. Coffee is often adulterated with chiccory, beans, peas, and various cereals, which are colored, roasted, and ground. By many, a small amount of chiccory is considered an improvement, owing to the bitter principle and volatile oil which it contains. Chiccory is void of caffeine. The addition of chiccory may be detected by adding cold water to supposed coffee; if chiccory is present, the liquid will be quickly discolored, and chiccory will sink; pure coffee will float.
1 cup coffee 1 cup cold water
1 egg 6 cups boiling water
Scald granite-ware coffee-pot. Wash egg, break, and beat slightly. Dilute with one-half the cold water, add crushed shell, and mix with coffee. Turn into coffee-pot, pour on boiling water, and stir thoroughly. Place on front of range, and boil three minutes. If not boiled, coffee is cloudy; if boiled too long, too much tannic acid is developed. The spout of pot should be covered or stuffed with soft paper to prevent escape of fragrant aroma. Stir and pour some in a cup to be sure that spout is free from grounds. Return to coffee-pot and repeat. Add remaining cold water, which perfects clearing. Cold water being heavier than hot water sinks to the bottom, carrying grounds with it. Place on back of range for ten minutes, where coffee will not boil. Serve at once. If any is left over, drain from grounds, and reserve for making of jelly or other dessert. Egg-shells may be saved and used for clearing coffee. Three egg-shells are sufficient to effect clearing where one cup of ground coffee is used. The shell performs no office in clearing except for the albumen which clings to it. Coffee made with an egg has a rich flavor which egg alone can give. Where strict economy is necessary, if great care is taken, egg may be omitted. Coffee so made should be served from range, as much motion causes it to become roiled.
BREAD is the most important article of food, and history tells of its use thousands of years before the Christian era. Many processes have been employed in making and baking; and as a result, from the first flat cake has come the perfect loaf. The study of bread making is of no slight importance, and deserves more attention than it receives.
BATTER is a mixture of flour and some liquid (usually combined with other ingredients, as sugar, salt, eggs, etc.), of consistency to pour easily, or to drop from a spoon. Batters are termed thin or thick, according to their consistency. Sponge is a batter to which yeast is added. Dough differs from batter inasmuch as it is stiff enough to be handled.
Rice Griddle-cakes I
21/2 cups flour 1/4 cup sugar
1/2 cup cold cooked rice 11/2 cups milk
1 tablespoon baking powder 1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons melted butter
Mix and sift dry ingredients. Work in rice with tips of fingers; add egg well beaten, milk, and butter. Cook same as other griddle-cakes.
CEREALS (cultivated grasses) rank first among vegetable foods; being of hardy growth and easy cultivation, they are more widely diffused over the globe than any of the flowering plants. They include wheat, oats, rye, barley, maize (Indian corn), and rice; some authorities place buckwheat among them. Wheat probably is the most largely consumed; next to wheat, comes rice.
EGGS, like milk, form a typical food, inasmuch as they contain all the elements, in the right proportion, necessary for the support of the body. Their highly concentrated, nutritive value renders it necessary to use them in combination with other foods rich in starch (bread, potatoes, etc.). In order that the stomach may have enough to act upon, a certain amount of bulk must be furnished. A pound of eggs (nine) is equivalent in nutritive value to a pound of beef. Eggs being rich in proteid serve as a valuable substitute for meat. EGGS, like milk, form a typical food, inasmuch as they contain all the elements, in the right proportion, necessary for the support of the body. Their highly concentrated, nutritive value renders it necessary to use them in combination with other foods rich in starch (bread, potatoes, etc.). In order that the stomach may have enough to act upon, a certain amount of bulk must be furnished. A pound of eggs (nine) is equivalent in nutritive value to a pound of beef. From this it may be seen that eggs, at even twenty-five cents per dozen, should not be freely used by the strict economist. Eggs being rich in proteid serve as a valuable substitute for meat.
Eggs à la Buckingham
Make five slices milk toast, and arrange on platter. Use recipe for Scrambled Eggs, having the eggs slightly underdone. Pour eggs over toast, sprinkle with four tablespoons grated mild cheese. Put in oven to melt cheese, and finish cooking eggs.
THE meat of fish is the animal food next in importance to that of birds and mammals. Fish meat, with but few exceptions, is less stimulating and nourishing than meat of other animals, but is usually easier of digestion. Salmon, mackerel, and eels are exceptions to these rules, and should not be eaten by those of weak digestion. White fish, on account of their easy digestibllity, are especially desirable for those of sedentary habits. Fish is not recommended for brain-workers on account of the large amount of phosphorus (an element abounding largely in nerve tissue) which it contains, but because of its easy digestibility. It is a conceded fact that many fish contain less of this element than meat.
Cut remnants of cold broiled steak or roast beef in one-inch cubes. Cover with boiling water, add one-half onion, and cook slowly one hour. Remove onion, thicken gravy with flour diluted with cold water, and season with salt and pepper. Add potatoes cut in one-fourth inch slices, which have been parboiled eight minutes in boiling salted water. Put in a buttered pudding-dish, cool, cover with bakingpowder biscuit mixture or pie crust. Bake in a hot oven. If covered with pie crust, make several incisions in crust that gases may escape.
PORK is the flesh and fat of pig or hog. Different parts of the creature, when dressed, take different names. The chine and spareribs, which correspond to the loin in lamb and veal, are used for roasts or steaks. Two ribs are left on the chine. The hind legs furnish hams. These are cured, salted, and smoked. Sugar-cured hams are considered the best. Pickle, to which is added light brown sugar, molasses, and saltpetre, is introduced close to bone; hams are allowed to hang one week, then smoked with hickory wood. Shoulders are usually corned, or salted and smoked, though sometimes cooked fresh. Fat, when separated from flesh and membrane, is tried out and called lard. Leaf-lard is the best, and is tried out from the leaf shaped pieces of solid fat which lie inside the flank. Sausages are trimmings of lean and fat meat, minced, highly seasoned, and forced into thin casings made of the prepared entrails. Pork contains the largest percentage of fat of any meat. When eaten fresh it is the most difficult of digestion, and although found in market through the entire year, it should be but seldom served, and then only during the winter months. By curing, salting, and smoking, pork is rendered more wholesome. Bacon, next to butter and cream, is the most easily assimilated of all fatty foods.
POULTRY includes all domestic birds suitable for food except pigeon and squab. Examples: chicken, fowl, turkey, duck, goose, etc. Game includes such birds and animals suitable for food as are pursued and taken in field and forest. Examples: quail, partridge, wild duck, plover, deer, etc. The flesh of chicken, fowl, and turkey has much shorter fibre than that of ruminating animals, and is not intermingled with fat,—the fat always being found in layers directly under the skin, and surrounding the intestines. Chicken, fowl, and turkey are nutritious, and chicken is specially easy of digestion. The white meat found on breast and wing is more readily digested than the dark meat. The legs, on account of constant motion, are of a coarser fibre and darker color.
Blanquette of Chicken
2 cups cold cooked chicken, cut in strips 1 tablespoon finely chopped parsley
1 cup White Sauce II Yolks 2 eggs
2 tablespoons milk
Add chicken to sauce; when well heated, add yolks of eggs slightly beaten, diluted with milk. Cook two minutes, then add parsley.
THE French chef keeps always on hand four sauces,—White, Brown, Béchamel, and Tomato,—and with these as a basis is able to make kinds innumerable. Butter and flour are usually cooked together for thickening sauces. When not browned, it is called roux; when browned, brown roux. The French mix butter and flour together, put in saucepan, place over fire, stir for five minutes; set aside to cool, again place over fire, and add liquid, stirring constantly until thick and smooth. Butter and flour for brown sauces are cooked together mich longer, and watched carefully lest butter should burn. The American cook makes sauce by stirring butter in saucepan until melted and bubbling, adds flour and continues stirring, then adds liquid, gradually stirring or beating until the boiling-point is reached. For Brown Sauce, butter should be stirred until well browned; flour should be added and stirred until butter until both are browned before the addition of liquid. The secret in making a Brown Sauce is to have butter and flour well browned before adding liquid. It is well worth remembering that a sauce of average thickness is made by allowing two tablespoons each of butter and flour to one cup liquid, whether it be milk, stock, or tomato. For Brown Sauce a slightly larger quantity of flour is necessary, as by browning flour its thickening property is lessened, its starch being changed to dextrine. When sauces are set away, put a few bits of butter on top to prevent crust from forming.
Thin White Sauce
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup scalded milk
11/2 tablespoons flour 1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Put better in saucepan, stir until melted and bubbling; add flour mixed with seasonings, and stir until thoroughly blended; then pour on gradually while stirring constantly the milk, bring to the boiling-point and let boil two minutes. If a wire whisk is used, all the milk may be added at once.
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup White Stock
2 tablespoons flour 1/4 teaspoon salt
Few grains pepper
Make same as Thin White Sauce.
11/2 cups White Stock 6 peppercorns
1 slice onion 1/4 cup butter
1 slice carrot 1/4 cup flour
Bit of bay leaf 1 cup scalded milk
Sprig of parsley 1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper
Cook stock twenty minutes with onion, carrot, bay leaf, parsley, and peppercorns, then strain; there should be one cupful. Melt the butter, add flour, and gradually hot stock and milk. Season with salt and pepper.
Yellow Béchamel Sauce
To two cups Béchamel Sauce add yolks of three eggs slightly beaten, first diluting eggs with small quantity of hot sauce, then adding gradually to remaining sauce. This prevents the sauce from having a curdled appearance.
Maître d’Hôtel Butter
1/4 cup butter 1/2 tablespoon finely chopped parsley
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon pepper 3/4 tablespoon lemon juice
Put butter in a bowl, and with small wooden spoon work until creamy. Add salt, pepper, and parsley, then lemon juice very slowly.
1 tablespoon vinegar 1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 tablespoon Worcestershire Sauce
1/3 cup butter
Mix vinegar, lemon juice, salt, and Worcestershire Sauce in a small bowl, and heat over hot water. Brown the butter in an omelet pan, and strain into first mixture.
Vegetables include, commonly though not botanically speaking, all plants used for food except grains and fruits. With exception of beans, peas, and lentils, which contain a large amount of proteid, they are chiefly valuable for their potash salts, and should form a part of each day’s dietary. Many contain much cellulose, which gives needed bulk to the food. The legumes, peas, beans, and lentils may be used in place of flesh food. For the various vegetables different parts of the plant are used. Some are eaten in the natural state, others are cooked.
POTATOES stand pre-eminent among the vegetables used for food. They are tubers belonging to the Nightshade family; their hardy growth renders them easy of cultivation in almost any soil or climate, and, resisting early frosts, they may be raised in a higher latitude than the cereals. They give needed bulk to food rather than nutriment, and, lacking in proteid, should be used in combination with meat, fish, or eggs. Potatoes contain an acrid juice, the greater part of which lies near the skin; it passes into the water during boiling of potatoes, and escapes with the steam from a baked potato.
Sweet potatoes, although analogous to white potatoes, are fleshy roots of the plant, belong to a different family (Convolvulus), and contain a much larger percentage of sugar. Our own country produces large quantities of sweet potatoes, which may be grown as far north as New Jersey and Southern Michigan. Kiln-dried sweet potatoes are the best, as they do not so quickly spoil.
SALADS, which constitute a course in almost every dinner, but a few years since seldom appeared on the table. They are now made in an endless variety of ways, and are composed of meat, fish, vegetables (alone or in combination) or fruits, with the addition of a dressing. The salad plants, lettuce, watercress, chiccory, cucumbers, etc., contain but little nutriment, but are cooling, refreshing, and assist in stimulating the appetite. They are valuable for the water and potash salts they contain. The olive oil, which usually forms the largest part of the dressing, furnishes nutriment, and is of much value to the system.
1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons vinegar
1/4 teaspoon pepper 4 tablespoons olive oil
Put ingredients in small cream jar and shake. Some prefer the addition of a few drops onion juice. French dressing is more easily prepared and largely used than any other dressing. One tablespoon, each, lemon juice and vinegar may be used.
Parisian French Dressing
1/2 cup olive oil 2 tablespoons finely chopped parsley
5 tablespoons vinegar
1/2 teaspoon powdered sugar 4 red peppers
1 tablespoon finely chopped Bermuda onion 8 green peppers 1 teaspoon salt
Mix ingredients in the order given. Let stand one hour, then stir vigorously for five minutes. This is especially fine with lettuce, romaine, chiccory, or endive. The red and green peppers are the small ones found in pepper sauce.
FRUITS are usually at their best when served ripe and in season; however, a few cannot be taken in their raw state, and still others are rendered more easy of digestion by cooking. The methods employed are stewing and baking.
Jams JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES, CANNING, THE DRYING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES; HELPFUL HINTS FOR THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER, MENUS, and FOOD VALUES make up the rest of the book .
Please let me know if you liked this FREE Cookbook. My favorite is the THE ALL NEW FANNIE FARMER BOSTON COOKING SCHOOL COOKBOOK revised by Wilma Lord Perkins. My book is worn out as it is a paper back. I also have the 1896 Cookbook and another one.
1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon vinegar
1/4 cup molasses 2 tablespoons boiling water
1/2 cup butter
Boil ingredients together until, when tried in cold water, mixture will become brittle. Turn into a well buttered pan; when slightly cool, mark with a sharp-pointed knife in squares. This candy is much improved by cooking a small piece of vanilla bean with other ingredients.
21/2 tablespoons butter 1/2 cup milk
2 cups molasses 3 squares unsweetened chocolate
1 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla
Put butter into kettle; when melted, add molasses, sugar, and milk. Stir until sugar is dissolved, and when boiling-point is reached, add chocolate, stirring constantly until chocolate is melted. Boil until, when tried in cold water, a firm ball may be formed in the fingers. Add vanilla just after taking from fire. Turn into a buttered pan, cool, and mark in small squares.
Nut Chocolate Caramels
To Chocolate Caramels add the meat from one pound English walnuts broken in pieces, or one-half pound almonds blanched and chopped.
Rich Chocolate Caramels
2 tablespoons butter 1 cup molasses
1/2 cup milk 4 squares chocolate
1/2 cup sugar 1 cup walnut meats, broken in pieces
2 teaspoons vanilla
Put butter in saucepan and when melted add milk, sugar and molasses. When boiling-point is reached add chocolate, and cook until brittle when tried in cold water, stirring occasionally to prevent mixture from adhering to pan. Remove from fire, beat three minutes, add nut meats and vanilla, and turn into a buttered pan. When cold cut in squares and wrap in paraffine paper.
1 lb. sugar 1 quart peanuts
Shell, remove skins, and finely chop peanuts. Sprinkle with one-fourth teaspoon salt. Put sugar in a perfectly smooth granite saucepan, place on range, and stir constantly until melted to a syrup, taking care to keep sugar from sides of pan. Add nut meat, pour at once into a warm buttered tin, and mark in small squares. If sugar is not removed from range as soon as melted, it will quickly caramelize.
Cover the bottom of a buttered shallow pan with one and one-third cups nut meat (castaneas, English walnuts, or almonds) cut in quarters. Pour over one pound sugar, melted as for Peanut Nougat. Mark in bars.
1/2 lb. confectioners’ sugar 1/4 lb. almonds, blanched and finely chopped
Put sugar in a saucepan, place on range, and stir constantly until melted; add almonds, and pour on an oiled marble. Fold mixture as it spreads with a broad-bladed knife; keeping it constantly in motion. Divide in four parts, and so soon as cool enough to handle shape in long rolls about one-third inch in diameter, keeping rolls in motion until almost cold. When cold, snap in pieces one and one-half inches long. This is done by holding roll at point to be snapped over the sharp edge of a broad-bladed knife and snapping. Melt confectioners’ chocolate over hot water, beat with a fork until light and smooth, and when slightly cooled dip pieces in chocolate and with a two-tined fork or bonbon dipper remove from chocolate to oiled paper, drawing dipper through top of each the entire length, thus leaving a ridge. Chocolate best adapted for dipping bonbons and confections must be bought where confectioners’ supplies are kept.
GINGERBREADS, COOKIES, AND WAFERS.
Christmas English Gingerbread
1 lb. flour 1 tablespoon ginger
1/2 lb. butter 1 teaspoon salt
1 cup sugar Molasses
Mix flour, sugar, ginger, and salt. Work in butter, using tips of fingers, and add just enough molasses to hold ingredients together. Let stand over night to get thoroughly chilled. Roll very thin, shape, and bake in a moderate oven.
1/2 cup butter 1/2 cup milk
1 cup light brown sugar 17/8 cups bread flour
2 teaspoons ginger
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and milk very slowly. Mix and sift flour and ginger, and combine mixtures. Spread very thinly with a broad, long-bladed knife on a buttered, inverted dripping-pan. Bake in a moderate oven. Cut in squares before removing from pan. Watch carefully and turn pan frequently during baking, that all may be evenly cooked. If mixture around edge of pan is cooked before that in the centre, pan should be removed from oven, cooked part cut off, and remainder returned to oven to finish cooking.
1/3 cup butter 1/3 cup raisins, stoned and cut in small pieces
2/3 cup sugar
1 egg 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
2 tablespoons milk 1/4 teaspoon clove
13/4 cups flour 1/4 teaspoon mace
2 teaspoons baking powder 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, then raisins, egg well beaten, and milk. Mix and sift dry ingredients and add to first mixture. Roll mixture a little thicker than for Vanilla Wafers.
If pastry is to be served, have it of the best,—light, flaky, and tender. To pastry belongs, 1st, Puff Paste; 2d, Plain Paste.
Puff paste, which to many seems so difficult of preparation, is rarely attempted by any except professionals. As a matter of fact, one who has never handled a rolling-pin is less liable to fail, under the guidance of a good teacher, than an old cook, who finds it difficult to overcome the bad habit of using too much force in rolling. It is necessary to work rapidly and with a light touch. A cold room is of great advantage.
For making pastry, pastry flour and the best shortenings, thoroughly chilled, are essential. Its lightness depends on the amount of air enclosed and expansion of that air in baking. The flakiness depends upon kind and amount of shortening used. Lard makes more tender crust than butter, but lacks flavor which butter, though some chefs prefer beef suet. Eggs and ice were formerly used, but are not essentials.
FROSTING and FILLINGS
White Mountain Cream
1 cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla or
1/3 cup cold water 1/2 tablespoon lemon juice
White 1 egg
Put sugar and water in saucepan, and stir to prevent sugar from adhering to saucepan; heat gradually to boiling-point, and boil without stirring until syrup will thread when dropped from tip of spoon or tines of silver fork. Pour syrup gradually on beaten white of egg, beating mixture constantly, and continue beating until of right consistency to spread; then add flavoring and pour over cake, spreading evenly with back of spoon. Crease as soon as firm. If not beaten long enough, frosting will run; if beaten too long, it will not be smooth. Frosting beaten too long may be improved by adding a few drops of lemon juice or boiling water. This frosting is soft inside, and has a glossy surface. If frosting is to be ornamented with nuts or candied cherries, place them on frosting as soon as spread.
Nut Caramel Frosting
11/4 cups brown sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla
1/3 cup water 1/4 cup English walnut meats, broken in pieces
1/4 cup white sugar
Whites 2 eggs
Boil sugar and water as for White Mountain Cream. Pour gradually, while beating constantly, on beaten whites of eggs, and continue the beating until mixture is nearly cool. Set pan containing mixture in pan of boiling water, and cook over range, stirring constantly, until mixture becomes granular around edge of pan. Remove from pan of hot water and beat, using a spoon, until mixture will hold its shape. Add nuts and vanilla, pour on cake, and spread with back of spoon, leaving a rough surface.
PASTE for pies should be one-fourth inch thick and rolled a little larger than the plate to allow for shrinking. In dividing paste for pies, allow more for upper than under crusts. Always perforate upper crusts that steam may escape. Some make a design, others pierce with a large fork.
Flat rims for pies should be cut in strips three-fourths inch wide. Under crusts should be brushed with cold water before putting on rims, and rims slightly fulled, otherwise they will shrink from edge of plate. The pastry-jagger, a simple device for cutting paste, makes rims with fluted edges.
Pies requiring two crusts sometimes have a rim between the crusts. This is mostly confined to mince pieces, where there is little danger of juice escaping. Sometimes a rim is placed over upper crust. Where two pieces of paste are put together, the under piece should always be brushed with cold water, the upper piece placed over, and the two pressed lightly together; otherwise they will separate during baking.
THE mixing and baking of cake requires more care and judgment than any other branch of cookery; notwithstanding, it seems the one most frequently attempted by the inexperienced.
Two kinds of cake mixtures are considered:—
I. Without butter. Example: Sponge Cakes.
II. With butter. Examples: Cup and Pound Cakes.
In cake making (1) the best ingredients are essential; (2) great care must be taken in measuring and combining ingredients; (3) pans must be properly prepared; (4) oven heat must be regulated, and cake watched during baking.
Best tub butter, fine granulated sugar, fresh eggs, and pastry flour are essentials for good cake. Coarse granulated sugar, bought by so many, if used in cake making, gives a coarse texture and hard crust. Pastry flour contains more starch and less gluten than bread flour, therefore makes a lighter, more tender cake. If bread flour must be used, allow two tablespoons less for each cup than the recipe calls for. Flour differs greatly in thickening properties; for this reason it is always well when using from a new bag to try a small cake, as the amount of flour given may not make the perfect loaf. In winter, cake may be made of less flour than in summer.
Before attempting to mix cake, study How to Measure (p. 25) and How to Combine Ingredients (p. 26).
Whites 10 eggs 1 teaspoon lemon extract
11/2 cups powdered sugar 1 cup flour
Yolks 6 eggs 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and extract. Cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted with cream of tartar. Bake fifty minutes in a moderate oven in an angel-cake pan.
To one-half recipe for Sunshine Cake add one-half cup English walnut meats broken in pieces. Bake in a mediumsized angel-cake pan; cool, split, and fill with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with coffee essence. Cover top with Confectioners’ Frosting, flavored with coffee essence.
Whites 10 eggs Yolks 7 eggs
1/4 teaspoon salt 11/2 cups sugar
7/8 teaspoon cream of tartar 1 teaspoon almond extract
1 cup pastry flour
Add salt to whites of eggs and beat until light. Sift in cream of tartar and beat until stiff. Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon colored and add two heaping tablespoons beaten whites. To remaining whites add gradually sugar measured after five siftings. Add almond extract and combine mixtures. Cut and fold in flour, measured after five siftings. Bake in angel-cake pan, first dipped in cold water, in a slow oven one hour. Have a pan of hot water in oven during the baking. Cover with Maraschino Frosting. Follow recipe for Ice Cream Frosting , adding to sugar one-half teaspoon cream of tartar, and flavor with maraschino. Sprinkle with almonds blanched, shredded, and baked until delicately browned.
Whites 3 eggs 1/3 cup flour
1/3 cup powdered sugar 1/8 teaspoon salt
Yolks 2 eggs 1/4 teaspoon vanilla
Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar gradually, and continue beating. Then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and flavoring. Cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted with salt. Shape four and one-half inches long and one inch wide on a tin sheet covered with unbuttered paper, using a pastry bag and tube. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, and bake eight minutes in a moderate oven. Remove from paper with a knife. Lady Fingers are much used for lining moulds that are to be filled with whipped cream mixtures. They are often served with frozen desserts, and sometimes put together in pairs with a thin coating of whipped cream between, when they are attractive for children’s parties.
Dark Fruit Cake
1/2 cup butter 2 eggs
3/4 cup brown sugar 1/2 cup milk
3/4 cup raisins, seeded and cut in pieces 2 cups flour
1/2 teaspoon soda
3/4 cup currants 1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 cup citron, thinly sliced and cut in strips 1/2 teaspoon allspice
1/2 teaspoon mace
1/2 cup molasses 1/4 teaspoon clove
1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
Follow directions for mixing butter cake mixtures. Bake in deep cake pans one and one-quarter hours.
Pascal Paoli wrote:My wife just recently watched a documentary about her. Americas Test Kitchen has done a project were they researched how to cook them properly.
Pascal, thank you for posting this video. I watch it but could not hear what they were saying due to no sound on my computer. I have already written a piece about" Fannie's Last Supper" which I will post later today or tomorrow.
Denise Kersting wrote:Hi I'd love to get your opinion on what type of pepper she was referencing in the Parisian Salad Dressing: "Parisian French Dressing. . . . The red and green peppers are the small ones found in pepper sauce." Do you know what pepper sauce is being referenced? Thanks for posting these, I love reading the older recipes!
Denise, that is a great question! I would have assumed red and green bell pepper if it hadn't said "4 red peppers + 8 green peppers" so that would mean they are small. Since the recipe does not have dry black pepper I am thinking this might have been a pepper sauce made from fresh peppercorns, some green and some red.
This is interesting based on variety:
My worn out more modern version of her cookbook revised by her nephew's wife Wilma Lord Perkins doesn't give a recipe for the Parisian though it offers a "Indian Salad Dressing" that has 1 Tbsp each of finely chopped green pepper and red pepper, which again I would assume meaning bell pepper.
I just looked up the history of my favourite brand of suet Atora and discovered it is still made less than three mile from where I lived most of my child hood In Hartlepool England http://www.atora.co.uk/aboutus/ and it was invented by a frenchman
here is a christmas pudding recipe http://www.atora.co.uk/inspiration/index.html
It is still an essential part of mincemeat pies at christmas in the UK
Here are Fannie's recipes. Note the Mock Mince Meat uses crackers instead of suet.
Mince pies should be always baked with two crusts. For Thanksgiving and Christmas pies, Puff Paste is often used for rims and upper crusts, but is never satisfactory when used for under crusts.
Mince Pie Meat I
4 lbs. lean beef 3 lbs. currants
2 lbs. beef suet 1/2 lb. finely cut citron
Baldwin apples 1 quart cooking brandy
3 quinces 1 tablespoon cinnamon and mace
3 lbs. sugar 1 tablespoon powdered clove
2 cups molasses 2 grated nutmegs
2 quarts cider 1 teaspoon pepper
4 lbs. raisins, seeded and cut in pieces Salt to taste
Cover meat and suet with boiling water and cook until tender, cool in water in which they are cooked; the suet will rise to top, forming a cake of fat, which may be easily removed. Finely chop meat, and add it to twice the amount of finely chopped apples. The apples should be quartered, cored, and pared, previous to chopping, or skins may be left on, which is not an objection if apples are finely chopped. Add quinces finely chopped, sugar, molasses, cider, raisins, currants, and citron; also suet, and stock in which meat and suet were cooked, reduced to one and one-half cups. Heat gradually, stir occasionally, and cook slowly two hours; then add brandy and spices.
Mince Pie Meat II
5 cups chopped cooked beef Juice 2 lemons
21/2 cups chopped suet Juice 2 oranges
71/2 cups chopped apples 1 tablespoon mace
3 cups cider Cinnamon 2 tablespoons each
1/2 cup vinegar Clove
1 cup molasses Allspice
5 cups sugar 2 nutmegs grated
3/4 lb. citron, finely chopped 2 tablespoons lemon extract
21/2 cups whole raisins 1 teaspoon almond extract
11/2 cups raisins, finely chopped 11/2 cups brandy
Salt 3 cups liquor in which beef was cooked
Mix ingredients in the order given, except brandy, and let simmer one and one-half hours; then add brandy and shavings from the rind of the lemons and oranges.
English Mince Meat
5 lbs. raisins, seeded 5 lbs. currants
5 lbs. suet finely chopped 5 lbs. light brown sugar
5 lbs. apples 1/2 teaspoon mace
4 lbs. citron 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
11/2 lbs. blanched almonds 21/2 cups brandy
Cook raisins, suet, apples, citron, currants, and sugar slowly for one and one-half hours; then add almonds, spices, and brandy.
Mince Meat (without Alcoholic Liquor)
Mix together one cup chopped apple, one-half cup raisins seeded and chopped, one-half cup currants, one-fourth cup butter, one tablespoon molasses, one tablespoon boiled cider, one cup sugar, one teaspoon cinnamon, one-half teaspoon cloves, one-half nutmeg grated, one salt-spoon of mace, and one teaspoon salt. Add enough stock in which meat was cooked to moisten; heat gradually to boiling-point, and simmer one hour; then add one cup chopped meat and two tablespoons Barberry Jelly. Cook fifteen minutes.
Mock Mince Pie
4 common crackers, rolled 1 cup raisins, seeded and chopped
11/2 cups sugar
1 cup molasses 1/2 cup butter
1/3 cup lemon juice or vinegar 2 eggs well beaten
Mix ingredients in order given, adding spices to taste. Bake between crusts. This quantity will make two pies.
Anne Miller wrote: I watch it but could not hear what they were saying due to no sound on my computer.
My wife told me, that you can watch the documentary on netflix. If you have questions about her recipes - this will give you additional insight. For example they said that using different old calf hooves has an effect on the hardness of the jellies they were making. They assumed that this was common knowledge back than and so it would not be written down in the book.
I remember another thing about "Puff Pastry" - were it says in the recipe "make puff pastry" . This only means folding the dough over for about 600 times and takes 4 hours
David Livingston wrote:That is some quantity of mince meat ! David
Those are some large quantities of mince meat. Do you think they made lots of pies or canned it? Being a cooking school I would think they made a lot of pies!
I tried to figure out how many pies one of those recipes would make based on the Mock Mince Meat making two pies but I couldn't figure it out.
This article discusses the aspects of cooking a Victoria dinner. "that his crew of chefs restricted themselves to only using cooking technology that was available during the Victorian era. Accordingly, all 12 courses of the meal were cooked on a 67-inch stove from the 1880s."
"And then there were the time-consuming complexities of the dishes themselves. Coloring the three Victorian jellies, for example, involved learning to make food coloring from scratch — using spinach for green, cream for white, saffron for yellow and beets for red. Meanwhile, the jellies themselves called for far less pleasant ingredients."
And while a 12-course meal may not have been a daily occurrence in the Victorian home, Kimball says that among the middle and upper classes, it became more and more common for Thanksgiving or Christmas gatherings.
"In the old days, recipes weren't like they are now; they're very short. So there [were] a lot of things you needed to know that were left unsaid," Kimball says. Take, for example, Kimball's experience with Fannie Farmer's recipe for mock turtle soup.
"Mock turtle soup was not made with turtle because it was expensive. They boiled a calf's head, and that gave a similar flavor," Kimball says. "What they didn't tell us the first time we did it was, 'Take out the brains!' So I boiled a calf's head with the brain in it, and I got a really thick, gloppy stock. It was awful. I finally dug up a recipe from a New York author back in the 1880s that said, 'Step 1: Take brains out.' We didn’t know that."
Mock Turtle Soup
1 calf’s head 2 cups brown stock
6 cloves 1/4 cup butter
1/2 teaspoon peppercorns 1/2 cup flour
6 allspice berries 1 cup stewed and strained tomatoes
2 sprigs thyme
1/3 cup sliced onion Juice 1/2 lemon
1/3 cup carrot, cut in dice Madeira wine
Clean and wash calf’s head; soak one hour in cold water to cover. Cook until tender in three quarts boiling salted water (to which seasoning and vegetables have been added). Remove head; boil stock until reduced to one quart. Strain and cool. Melt and brown butter, add flour, and stir until well browned; then pour on slowly brown stock. Add head-stock, tomato, one cup face-meat cut in dice, and lemon juice. Simmer five minutes; add Royal custard cut in dice, and Egg Balls, or Force-meat Balls. Add Madeira wine, and salt and pepper to taste.
And then there were the time-consuming complexities of the dishes themselves. Coloring the three Victorian jellies, for example, involved learning to make food coloring from scratch — using spinach for green, cream for white, saffron for yellow and beets for red. Meanwhile, the jellies themselves called for far less pleasant ingredients.
"These are made by boiling calves' feet," Kimball says. "You split them in half, and you simmer them for hours, and then you mix in sugar and lemon juice, and it sets up in the refrigerator when it's chilled." According to Kimball, the jellies would be just as good if they were made with powdered gelatin, as is done today.
From the cookbook:
Gelatin in its raw state is termed collagen. It is a transparent, tasteless substance, obtained by boiling with water, muscle, skin, cartilage, bone, tendon, ligament, or membrane of animals. By this process, collagen of connective tissues is dissolved and converted into gelatin. Gelatin is insoluble in cold water, soluble in hot water, but in boiling water is decomposed, and by much boiling will not solidify on cooling. When subjected to cold water it swells, and is called hydrated gelatin. Myosin is the albuminoid of muscle, collagen of tendons, ossein of bones, and chondrin of cartilage and gristle.
Here are the recipes I would use to prepare Thanksgiving and Christmas Dinner:
Dress, clean, stuff, and truss a ten-pound turkey . Place on its side on rack in a dripping-pan, rub entire surface with salt, and spread breast, legs, and wings with one-third cup butter, rubbed until creamy and mixed with one-fourth cup flour. Dredge bottom of pan with flour. Place in a hot oven, and when flour on turkey begins to brown, reduce heat, and baste every fifteen minutes until turkey is cooked, which will require about three hours. For basting use one-half cup butter melted in one-half cup boiling water and after this is used baste with fat in pan. Pour water in pan during the cooking as needed to prevent flour from burning. During cooking turn turkey frequently, that it may brown evenly. If turkey is browning too fast, cover with buttered paper to prevent burning. Remove string and skewers before serving. Garnish with parsley, or celery tips, or curled celery and rings and discs of carrots strung on fine wire. For stuffing, use double the quantities given in recipes under Roast Chicken. If stuffing is to be served cold, add one beaten egg. Turkey is often roasted with Chestnut Stuffing, Oyster Stuffing, or Turkey Stuffing (Swedish Style).
I learned to do stuffing but my MIL taught me how much easier it was to use Dressing. I used a Cornbread dressing recipe without adding the stock then when the turkey was done I put the dressing in the pan with the turkey and put it back in for about 20 to 30 minutes.
For my Giblet Gravy:
I cook Giblets:
Wash giblets and cook until tender, with neck and tips of wings, putting them in cold water and heating water quickly that some of the flavor may be drawn out into stock, which is to be used for making gravy.
Then I used the Velouté Sauce recipe for the gravy and add cutup giblet in the sauce. The sauce recipe is in my first post.
I like the brown and serve rolls so I usually used those for the rolls so I have never made rolls.
I usually had canned jellied cranberry sauce and made a orange and cranberry salad using the whole berry canned sauce, jello and mandarin oranges.
I always serve mashed potatoes and a sweet potato casserole.
My MIL usually brought the pies: Buttermilk pie, cherry pie and chocolate pie. She had fun later learning to make pie crust rather than buying the frozen pie shells. I have never made pie crust.
My parents traditional sweets were: Fruit cake, mincemeat pie and pumpkin pie.
I left out the link to these:
Also included are: [url= http://www.bartleby.com/87/0023.html [/url] Hot Puddings, Pudding Sauces, Cold Desserts, Ices, Ice Creams, and Other Frozen Desserts
This classic recipe is an adaptation of one found in a revised edition by Marion Cunningham. It takes time but very little effort, and you will be rewarded with soft, pillowy, butter-rich rolls worthy of your best breadbasket.
4 tablespoons butter, at room temperature, plus 4 tablespoons melted butter for brushing dough
2 tablespoons sugar
2 teaspoons salt
2 cups warm milk
1 package dry yeast
6 cups white flour, approximately
Mix the 4 tablespoons room-temperature butter, the sugar, the salt and the warm milk in a large bowl and let cool to lukewarm.
Stir the yeast into 1/4 cup warm water and let it stand for 5 minutes to dissolve.
Make the sponge: Add 3 cups flour and the dissolved yeast to the milk mixture and beat vigorously for 2 minutes to form a loose batter. Cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour.
Stir in the remaining flour 1/2 cup at a time to form a shaggy dough firm enough to knead. Turn out onto a lightly floured board, knead for a minute or two, then let rest for 10 minutes. Resume kneading until smooth, 8 to 10 minutes. (Alternatively, add the sponge and 3 cups flour to the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the dough hook, and knead on low until the dough is smooth and pulls away from the sides of the bowl, 10 minutes.)
Cover the bowl and let rise again until doubled in bulk, 45 to 60 minutes.
Using a rolling pin, roll out dough until it is 1/3 inch thick. Cut with a 2 3/4-inch round biscuit cutter or with an oval Parker House roll cutter.
Using the dull edge of a knife, make a crease through the center of each piece of dough, brush with melted butter, fold in half along the crease, and press edges lightly together.
Place rolls 1 inch apart on a buttered baking sheet (or use a silicone baking mat). Let rise again until dough has doubled in size, about 45 minutes. (It should feel spongy to the touch, and hold an indentation when pressed with a finger.)
Position a rack in the upper third of the oven and heat to 425 degrees. Bake rolls until golden, about 12 to 18 minutes. Brush again with melted butter. Let cool for a few minutes, then serve warm. The rolls are best when freshly baked but can be reheated in a 350-degree oven for a few minutes before serving.
I'd recommend: do the last rise in the fridge overnight then bake the morning of. Freshly-baked is best!
My Aunt Eloise made these very rolls for Sunday dinner every week for decades. With part of the dough, she would cut out rolls in animal shapes for the children. All this bread-making would take place on Saturday nights after she had worked all day. And somehow, on Sunday morning she found time to teach a children's Sunday School class before going home to get lunch on the table for up to 20 people. These rolls are wonderful. Thanks for the reminder.
Letting it rise in fridge makes a fluffier bread with better crumb and flavor, plus freshly baked bread is really special at a big family meal. For what its worth.
Cranberry Parker House Rolls
For the cranberry butter:
4 cups (1 pound) fresh cranberries
1 cup sugar
2 cups (1 pound) unsalted butter, softened
While dough is rising, make cranberry butter. Place cranberries in a medium saucepan over a low heat. Add 1/2 cup water and sprinkle in the sugar. Simmer, stirring occasionally, for 30 minutes or until berries are mushy and water evaporates. Transfer to a bowl to cool.
Place softened butter in bowl of an electric mixer and beat on a low speed with paddle attachment. Add cranberries and beat until well combined. Keep butter covered with plastic wrap at room temperature until ready to use.
Lightly spray 2 (12-cup) muffin tins with nonstick cooking spray. When dough has doubled in size, turn it out onto a lightly floured surface and divide into 8 equal pieces. Roll each eighth into a 6-inch-long cylinder. Set one aside and cover remaining 7 cylinders with plastic wrap to prevent drying while you work.
Cut first cylinder into 6 equal round pieces about 1 inch thick. Roll each piece of dough into a ball and flatten with your hands into a 2 1/2-inch round. Spread a generous amount of cranberry butter (about 2 teaspoons) on the face of each round and place each in a muffin cup, butter side up. Repeat this process with second cylinder of dough, this time placing the rounds butter side down on top of rounds in tin. Using your thumb, gently press center of each roll, making an indentation in middle. Place a dot of cranberry butter in each indentation. Repeat with remaining dough. Loosely cover muffin tins with plastic wrap.
Allow rolls to rise until tops are puffed up to edge of muffin tin, about 30 minutes. Meanwhile, preheat oven to 350 degrees. Uncover and bake rolls until golden brown, about 22 to 28 minutes, or until golden brown on top. Turn rolls out of muffin tins. Serve warm with additional cranberry butter on the side.
Tip: To make ahead: Assemble rolls in muffin tins and refrigerate, covered, overnight. Let them stand at room temperature until puffed, 2 to 3 hours, then bake as directed. Or assemble rolls in muffin tins and freeze, covered, for up to 2 weeks. Defrost rolls in refrigerator for 8 hours, or overnight. Let stand at room temperature until puffed, about 2 to 3 hours, then bake as directed.
Two tips: First, if you have a kitchen scale, weigh your dough ball, then divide by 48 and weigh it out into 48 equal little balls. Two of those make one roll. Second, you can make half as much butter and still have some left over. A scant tsp. in the middle and a 1/2 tsp. on top of each roll gave us that beautiful color without making a mess while baking. Put the extra butter on the table at dinner!
I halved the recipe and still had way too much cranberry butter for the rolls. I would halve the butter recipe for the full roll recipe in future.