Any system that mists water can broadcast bacteria into the air. I remember reading some article about a different disease caused by fungi living in water pipes - problem was cased by inhaling water during showers.
paul wheaton wrote:
Here is my five cent summary of the information gathered so far:
1) 115 degrees F is an excellent temperature for legionella bacteria to reproduce. So turning your water heater down to this temperature is a really bad idea. A good temperature for a hot water heater is 140 degrees F.
2) 85% of pneumonia cases are caused by legionella bacteria.
3) many solar hot water systems make excellent legionella bacteria incubators. When considering solar hot water designs, make sure your design mitigates legionella issues.
4) To save energy with a hot water heater: Use less hot water; insulate your hot water heater; when your current water heater dies, replace it with a smaller hot water heater; insulate your hot water pipes, so that people using a sink/shower will get hot enough water sooner; turn off your hot water heater when you leave for more than a day.
Any of this less than accurate?
And so what is the temp of the water at the outlet?
Legionella in small domestic water tanks is not a worry. Ships domestic H2O systems and air handlers have vastly different contamination issues.
Muzhik McCoy wrote:
Crazy question: why not just heat water on the stove and sponge bathe?
While I can't speak for others, I can say that my daughters, darlings though they are, don't appreciate coming downstairs in the morning to see their dad naked in the kitchen touching himself.
Strange, I know, but what can you do? Kids nowadays...
Legionnaires' disease — The reported incidence of Legionnaires' disease is approximately 1.4 to 1.8 cases per 100,000 persons in the United States, Europe, and Australia [19-21]. Within these regions, local rates range from approximately 0.4 to 5.0 cases per 100,000 persons. The highest reported incidence (5.3 cases per 100,000 persons) is in New Zealand, where L. longbeachae causes the majority of disease [22,23]. Across these regions, reported incidences are rising [19,20,23,24]. However, this rise in incidence may reflect increased awareness, improved diagnostic tests, and/or changes in reporting standards rather than a true rise in incidence.
Legionnaires' disease may be community acquired or acquired in health care facilities.
●Community-acquired pneumonia – Legionnaires' disease accounts for approximately 1 to 10 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) [25-29]. CAP caused by Legionellae is most often diagnosed in hospitalized patients and can be severe. Up to 44 percent of patients have been reported to require intensive care unit admission, and the associated mortality is approximately 1 to 10 percent [19,30,31].
●Nosocomial pneumonia – The prevalence of Legionnaires' disease in patients with nosocomial pneumonia is linked to presence and concentration of legionellae in the facility's water supply [32,33]. In the United States in 2015, approximately 20 percent of cases of Legionnaires' disease were acquired in hospitals or long-term care facilities .
Legionellae are environmental organisms found in water and soil . Environmental reservoirs vary among species.
L. pneumophila and most other Legionella species mainly reside in bodies of water, such as lakes, streams, and artificial water reservoirs. Within water, Legionellae can live planktonically, in biofilms, or as intracellular parasites within protozoa (eg, free-living amoeba and ciliates) . Replication within protozoa protects the organism from temperature shifts, pH changes, and nutrient-poor environments. Additional factors that promote growth in water include warm temperatures (25 to 42°C), stagnation, and sedimentation.
Legionella bacteria are typically transmitted to humans via inhalation of aerosols derived from water or soil [7,14]. The infectious dose for humans has not been precisely quantified but is likely high, requiring >1000 organisms to cause infection [1,15].
Contamination of water sources with concentrations of Legionella high enough to cause human infection can occur when changes in water flow or pressure disrupt biofilms, releasing large amounts of bacteria into the surrounding water . Legionella's ability to grow intracellularly within free-living amoeba may also facilitate transmission from either water or soil [1,16,17]. A single infected amoebal cyst may contain thousands of Legionella bacteria and, if aerosolized, could easily deliver an infectious dose.
Laboratory and person-to-person transmission generally do not occur, likely due to the high infectious dose. However, a single case of possible person-to-person transmission has been reported .
Legionella bacteria were first identified as a result of the investigation of an outbreak of severe pneumonia among attendees at an American Legion convention in 1976 [37-39]. The initial outbreak involved 182 persons and was linked to contamination of the air conditioning system at the hotel where the convention was held.
Subsequently, Legionella has been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease outbreaks. During 2015, there were 54 reported Legionnaires' disease outbreaks in Europe alone, involving 559 cases from 11 countries . While the largest of these outbreaks involved 304 persons, most affected <10 persons. Large outbreaks are often associated with contaminated industrial cooling towers or water systems that supply communities or facilities such as hospitals, hotels, cruise ships, or apartment buildings [40-46].
As examples, contaminated cooling towers were responsible for an outbreak at the Melbourne Aquarium that involved 125 visitors . Seventy-six percent of patients required hospitalization, and the case-fatality rate was 3 percent. In an outbreak at a Dutch flower show, 188 visitors became ill after exposure to a contaminated whirlpool spa in the exhibition hall . However, contamination of any water source can also lead to infection.
Most Legionella infections are associated with exposure to contaminated manmade water reservoirs. Reported sources of infection are diverse and include showers , pools , hot tubs , aquariums , fountains , birthing pools [62,63], drinking water systems [14,52], air conditioning systems and cooling towers [64,65], and other water collection systems [66,67]. Natural water systems, such as rivers and streams, are less common sources of infection .
paul wheaton wrote:Julia,
I suspect that this is an american source? I wonder if an english source would have conflicting information? Such conflicting information would explain why american stuff says "set your hot water heater to 110" and other countries insist that it needs to be set much higher to prevent legionella stuff.