Leah Sattler wrote:
I have read conflicting information regarding the affects of millet in the diet on the omega fat composition of the animal products.
Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Eggs Using Pearl Millet Grain, Low Levels of Flaxseed and Natural Pigments
C.A. Ruiz-Feria and K. Amini
Abstract: We have previously reported that pearl millet (PM) could substitute corn and reduce the amount of flaxseed (8%, FS) needed to produce omega-3 enriched eggs in a 6 week trial, but reduced yolk pigmentation. In this experiment we evaluated egg fatty acid (FA) profile, yolk pigmentation, laying performance, and liver integrity in a 12 week experiment using PM-based diets with lower levels of FS (4, 6 and 8%) and natural pigments (PG, 0.1% and 0.2%) in a factorial arrangement of treatments (six cage replicates per treatment). Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements. Egg number and egg mass produced were measured and recorded on a daily basis, whereas BW and feed consumption measurements were recorded every two weeks. At the end of each two week period, three eggs were collected from each cage to measure egg trait parameters and then yolks were separated, pooled and lyophilized for FA determination by Gas Chromatography. At the end of the experiment, all the hens were euthanized to determine liver integrity. Egg traits and flock performance parameters, were not different among treatments, except in week 8, 10 and 12, when birds fed PM-based diets including 8% FS produced smaller (P < 0.05) eggs than hens fed 4% FS. The inclusion of the PG at 0.1% restored yolk pigmentation to marketable levels (above 7 on the Roche® color fan scale). In summary, birds fed a diet containing PM as the sole grain source and 6% FS, consistently produced eggs with more than 350 mg/egg of n-3 FA, which is the lower standard to market eggs as “omega-3 enriched”, whereas hens fed the diet containing 8% FS produced eggs with about 500 mg/kg of n-3 FA. Liver integrity was not affected by dietary treatment. Thus, PM based diets with levels as low as 6% of FS and low levels of natural PG (0.1%) can be used to produce n-3 FA enriched eggs, preserving egg quality and restoring yolk color, and maintaining hen health and productive performance.
Brenda Groth wrote:
nothing makes better pasteries
paul wheaton wrote:
Acres USA sep 2009, page 33: the article goes on to talk about a range of lards and how it is related to what the pigs eat.
Thanks Kristen, I'm glad it's simple, I believe it's chopped into pieces and boiled in water until the water is gone and the roasted, but I'm not at all sure about that. Would you please provide me with your recipe? Thanks.
I'm interested in purchasing pork fat from an organic meat market in the village. Does anyone have a recipe for rendering the fat?
My great-grandmother rendered lard in a similar fashion. She preferred pork fat. The pork fat was chopped up, placed in a double boiler. She added some water but I can't say if she covered it, this was back in the 70s. She left the pot on the cool side of the woodstove all night. The next day the liquid was poured into a pot and put on the steps outside. She did this in winter. The whole thing froze solid. It was brought inside, left on the counter to thaw and the water ice melt. The lard on top was cut into a few pieces in order to remove it. The bottom of the lard was covered in goo which was scraped off. Most of it went into the fridge, some went into a coffee can on the stove to be used making dinner. She lived to 98.
Jocelyn Campbell wrote:
... and leafy vegetables ...
I think the tendency to go rancid, reminds us to use the products while the vitamins are still strong and plentiful.