• Post Reply Bookmark Topic Watch Topic
  • New Topic
permaculture forums growies critters building homesteading energy monies kitchen purity ungarbage community wilderness fiber arts art permaculture artisans regional education skip experiences global resources cider press projects digital market permies.com private forums all forums
this forum made possible by our volunteer staff, including ...
master stewards:
  • Nicole Alderman
  • r ranson
  • Anne Miller
  • Pearl Sutton
  • Mike Haasl
stewards:
  • paul wheaton
  • Joylynn Hardesty
  • Dave Burton
master gardeners:
  • jordan barton
  • Greg Martin
  • Steve Thorn
gardeners:
  • Carla Burke
  • Jay Angler
  • Kate Downham

How to Make a Face Mask

 
pollinator
Posts: 343
Location: Monticello Florida zone 8a
104
homeschooling hugelkultur monies foraging wofati building wood heat homestead
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Here is info on best mask filter material. Filter Material Test Results  

The table below shows the results of different mask materials tested by TSI, Inc using a TSI 8130a test machine². This instrument is the gold standard in filtration media testing. The TSI 8130a is used by NIOSH to certify N95 respirators (42 CFR Part 84)  and by respirator manufacturers around the world to test their products.

 
pollinator
Posts: 348
Location: Vancouver Island, BC, Canada
148
dog
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
I have learned of an innovation for making fabric masks fit and feel better. I, personally am/was a fan of generous, round elastic, ear loops. BUT many find these either uncomfortable, or, like me, find the side of the fabric bunched and gaped over time.

The solution was shared with me today, no plastic doomahicky, no knitted or crocheted band or cap with buttons.

I simply untied the knots in the elastic ear loops, and re-tied them, top and bottom, creating a single elastic loop. Slip the lower elastic over neck, the upper elastic on top rear of head, slip your hair above the band free so it lays over top the band.

These keeps ears free for glasses, earpieces, headphones, or hearing aids. It eliminates "ties" that are without flex and kind of ugly and annoying. It eliminates bunching and gaping at the sides; and lastly, eliminates pain some suffer from constant pressure on the ears.  The only down side, it is slightly awkward to put on, compared to slipping ear loops over ears.

Sizing of this loop would be wearer and elastic (stretch) dependent, but most likely in the 16-18 inch range.
 
master steward
Posts: 3797
Location: USDA Zone 8a
1104
dog hunting food preservation cooking bee greening the desert
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Jason, these might be what you need:



Source




source




Source
 
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
This is a basic "user-friendly" article from a local farm organization on why we need to get everyone wearing masks as we re-open the economy:
https://bcfarmsandfood.com/why-face-masks-essential-as-we-go-back-to-work/

Maybe if we all send it to all our friends/family, we can make a dent in the problem going forward?
 
Posts: 826
Location: In the woods, West Coast USA
112
  • Likes 4
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
This study,  July 1, 2020, shows mask efficiency and distances particles traveled.  No. 5, 2 layers of cotton quilting fabric in a mask that covers under the chin seems to be the best.





Mask test: Which type works best at stopping droplets?

Four types of non-medical face masks were tested by Florida Atlantic University researchers to determine which was most effective at stopping droplets, such as those that spread coronavirus.

The study was published Tuesday in the journal Physics of Fluids.

In the experiment, a mannequin’s head was outfitted to deliver a simulated sneeze or cough using a manual pump and a smoke generator. A laser was used to map the paths of droplets.

The tests were repeated with the mannequin’s nose and mouth covered by certain masks readily available to the general public — three do-it-yourself versions and one commonly stocked by drugstores.

The results:

1.  Uncovered: Droplets traveled more than 8 feet. By 12 feet, most droplets had fallen to the ground.

2.  Bandana covering the nose and mouth but loose at the bottom: 3 feet.

3.  Handkerchief or square from a T-shirt, loosely folded and secured over the ears with rubber bands: 15 inches.

4.  Cone-style non-sterile commercial mask: 8 inches.

5.  Stitched mask, closely fitted, with two layers of quilting fabric and elastic loops or cloth ties: 2½ inches.

The World Health Organization says governments should encourage people to wear non-medical, fabric masks, especially in settings where physical distancing of at least 3 feet is not possible — such as on public transport, in shops or in other confined or crowded environments.

In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends cloth face coverings to protect others in places where social distancing can’t be maintained.

 
master steward
Posts: 13890
Location: Pacific Northwest
6288
hugelkultur kids cat duck forest garden foraging fiber arts sheep wood heat homestead
 
Cristo Balete
Posts: 826
Location: In the woods, West Coast USA
112
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator

Nicole Alderman wrote:Cristo, do you perchance have a link to the study/article? I want to share it with my friends. Thanks!



Nicole, their site keeps blocking me because of my privacy settings, but if you search on "journal Physics of Fluids masks," you'll get a link to aip.scitation.org, they have the article.
 
master steward & author
Posts: 20331
Location: Left Coast Canada
5615
books chicken cooking fiber arts sheep writing
  • Likes 3
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
New mask out in Canada that has an "antimicrobial coating" that's been independently tested to be effective in killing covid-19 quickly:
https://www.complex.com/life/2020/07/canadian-mask-first-to-deactivate-covid-19

What they *haven't* said in the article is if it's been shown safe for people breathing that coating. I might be willing to risk that if I was working in a hospital, but I think I'll stick to my cotton mask for the places I normally go!
 
Posts: 38
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator

Anne Miller wrote:I have heard that medical workers and medical facilities are running out of face masks.  I have decided that now is a good time to make some and thought that I would share what information that I have found.

How to make a face mask articles:

https://nypost.com/2020/03/20/doctors-are-now-running-out-of-face-masks-heres-how-to-make-your-own/

https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/03/19/opinion/guidance-against-wearing-masks-coronavirus-is-wrong-you-should-cover-your-face/



I like the red one in the picture though I am looking for the protection that layers might offer.  Here are some templets that I found:







This information is from the first article that I posted:

A vacuum cleaner bag was considered the most formidable household material with a rate of nearly 86 percent protection against the smallest particles tested. Falling behind was a standard dish towel at nearly 73 percent; a cotton-blend T-shirt at 70 percent; and an antimicrobial pillowcase at 68 percent.

They also tested how doubling up on the material could help. In the case of dish towels, two layers showed a notable increase in filtration rate — a 14 percent jump for particles of 1 micron in size — although the same level of increased benefits could not be said for cotton shirts or pillowcases.



Now to get started!  Any suggestions?



doing a face mask yourself is good. But make sure to wash it daily :) THUMBS UP FOR ALL
 
pollinator
Posts: 529
Location: BC Interior, Zone 6-7
110
forest garden tiny house books
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
I finally got around to it. I made a mask I like.

I didn't want to make the fitted styles because there are too many shaped pieces and curves that made it seem like it would be a hassle to adapt to what  I was looking for.

I like the pleated style ones because they're a rectangle you can zip together in no time without too many scraps of fabric left over. What I don't like about the pleated ones is how high up the bridge of the nose they go, how gapey they tend to be on the cheeks, and just how much excess fabric there seems to be generally. I wear glasses, so I wanted something that fits low and snug on the nose so my glasses don't fog up.

So I started with two rectangles of cotton cut from pillowcases, measuring 23cm x 15cm. I sewed those, right sides together, leaving a gap so I could turn it inside out. I left the gap in the middle of one of the long sides so I could insert a nose wire later. Seam allowance was whatever the first line on the sewing machine plate is...must be 3/8".

Once it was turned right side out, I top stitched all the way around. Seam allowance 1/4", edge of the presser foot. I stuck a heavy duty twist tie in the gap from earlier so it sits between the edge of the mask and the top stitching. Then I sewed up the gap. So far the twist tie hasn't shifted side to side, but it could be sewn in place if that's a problem.

Then I played around with pleats. I ended up with something I don't think I've seen before.  When the pleats are all folded up, the mask is a third its full depth, nose to chin. When they're unfolded, the bottom curves under your chin and the top curves over your nose.

IMG_20200728_122746087.jpg
Mask all folded up
Mask all folded up
IMG_20200728_123225556.jpg
How the pleats look from the side. Blue side touches skin
How the pleats look from the side. Blue side touches skin
IMG_20200728_122832726.jpg
Nice curvy pouch for face
Nice curvy pouch for face
IMG_20200728_123321779.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200728_123321779.jpg]
 
Jan White
pollinator
Posts: 529
Location: BC Interior, Zone 6-7
110
forest garden tiny house books
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Oh, and you can see where I pulled the elastic through. I just poked holes in the fabric. I made the elastic a little too long to begin with, which is why there's a knot. I'll sew it and cut the knot off when I have time.
 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
@Jan White - Great job! We've all got slightly different needs, so trying a way that you thought would be comfy for you, and making it work, is what *really* matters. Now that you have, I suggest you consider making several as it looks as if this bug is going to keep coming back. I just put one in our car glove box so I didn't have to constantly remember to bring it on quick errands when I didn't bother with my pack.
 
Lorinne Anderson
pollinator
Posts: 348
Location: Vancouver Island, BC, Canada
148
dog
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
One of the key things to be mindful of is proper mask hygiene.

1) wash hands
2) put on mask
3) do not touch or fuss with mask, once on
4) wash hands
5) remove fabric mask and put in washer
6) wash hands, again

We have to assume mask is "contaminated" when removing; wash hands first to not bring potentially contaminated hands to face when removing and again AFTER removing as we have to assume removal could recontaminate hands.

If storing, once cleaned, paper bags (new every time) rather than plastic is ideal; plastic can hold moisture and create a breeding ground for manner of nasties (mold, bacteria, etc.).

Ideally, mask would go on before leaving home, and not be removed until you are home again to facilitate safest practice.
 
steward & bricolagier
Posts: 5784
Location: SW Missouri
2557
goat cat fungi books chicken earthworks food preservation cooking building homestead ungarbage
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Might be useful for some people: masks with transparent parts. Made up for lip reading, working well with autism too.

 
Posts: 165
17
sheep
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Wearing masks is like wearing trousers (or short or skirt) on a hot day - not the most comfortable, but it makes other people feel better.

I like it when my friends feel safe, so I wear mask cotton mask as it is less uncomfortable than disposable.

 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator

ray Bunbury wrote:Wearing masks is like wearing trousers (or short or skirt) on a hot day - not the most comfortable, but it makes other people feel better.

I have a fried who is reliant on the bus system. There are signs asking people to wear masks on the bus, and she says that about 75% are doing so.  However, she has also noticed that they are becoming a fashion statement. Just like people can make a statement with the colour, pattern or style of trousers, she's seeing the same with masks. My friend bought one with cat's whiskers, nose and mouth printed on it even though it doesn't fit as nicely as the two I sewed her, just because she loves cats and thought it would make people smile!

Yes, it's all about keeping our friends safe. If everyone who *can* wear a mask does so, and if people are compassionate to those who can't, and understand the need for a mask to drop for lip reading, and how sometimes a clear face shield is needed instead, we can make wearing masks as stress-free as possible, and hopefully not just get on top of this virus, but develop a culture where wearing masks if you're sick but need to go out anyway, is seen as the kind thing to do.
 
Nicole Alderman
master steward
Posts: 13890
Location: Pacific Northwest
6288
hugelkultur kids cat duck forest garden foraging fiber arts sheep wood heat homestead
  • Likes 3
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
I made my first mask a few days back! I used some fabric I'd bought years ago to make my husband an apron (I always buy a lot extra) and used a swaddling blanket for the inside to make it a bit more breathable. His mask was pretty much the guinnea pig for making my kid's masks.

This is the pattern I used:



I added braided cotton pipe cleaners (I have a LOT of them from making dragons and fairies) and sewed that all the way across the top. I love how this allows us to form the mask to our face, stopping fog and also allowing for us to see DOWN (the normal blue masks handed out at stores block a lot of my downward vision--not a good thing when trying to keep track of short children!)
20200808_163236.jpg
Exterior fabric (mushrooms!)
Exterior fabric (mushrooms!)
20200808_164308.jpg
Interior fabric (old swaddle blanket that was stained and torn)
Interior fabric (old swaddle blanket that was stained and torn)
20200808_170427.jpg
Pinned together--you only have to sew the middle seams together. I had to do quite a bit of seam-ripping to fix that!
Pinned together--you only have to sew the middle seams together. I had to do quite a bit of seam-ripping to fix that!
20200808_173745.jpg
Each sewn separately
Each sewn separately
20200808_175744.jpg
Match them up, and then sew!
Match them up, and then sew!
116717482_824144754656388_5729908198198992110_n.jpg
Finished, with my husband modeling his new mask!
Finished, with my husband modeling his new mask!
117075645_674354233293599_7938364360062866180_n.jpg
[Thumbnail for 117075645_674354233293599_7938364360062866180_n.jpg]
 
gardener
Posts: 878
Location: Soutwest Ohio
287
homeschooling forest garden foraging rabbit tiny house books food preservation cooking writing woodworking homestead
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
When all of this hit and masks were so hard to get, I remember taking a number of bandanas and using them as shown in the video below. Obviously not the best thing ever, but I thought it was useful until I could get better. Probably not so relevant now, but might be of use/interest to someone following this thread.

 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator

D. Logan wrote:When all of this hit and masks were so hard to get, I remember taking a number of bandanas and using them as shown in the video below.

If they are cotton bandanas, they'd make fine fabric for making a set of either the pleated masks or the shaped masks, and with some pipecleaner or other wire across the top, they'd be far more comfortable. I recommend people have at least two, as I find it more comfortable to be able to remove one after a maximum of 2 hours as the humidity builds up in them.
 
Lorinne Anderson
pollinator
Posts: 348
Location: Vancouver Island, BC, Canada
148
dog
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Nicole: this is the style I use also! Soooo much better than the pleated for wearability and comfort.

I adapted mine from the two ear loops to a single head loop - not only vastly better fitting if you have tiny ears (prevents gaping at the sides); but allows for single handed contagion free "dropping" of the mask when it is not needed. Simply remove the top of head portion and it freely dangles from the portion on the back off your neck.

This eliminates the need to ever touch the actual mask. In this heat, it can be a blessed relief (especially when errands require multiple stops) to not wear it in the car; and no worry about hand /face contamination fiddling with it. The lack of ear stress and tangling in glasses or hearing aids is another giant plus!
IMG_20200819_011233.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200819_011233.jpg]
IMG_20200819_011513.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200819_011513.jpg]
IMG_20200819_011434.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200819_011434.jpg]
 
Lorinne Anderson
pollinator
Posts: 348
Location: Vancouver Island, BC, Canada
148
dog
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
As to the "fashion statement"...Oh yes! Heck we have lost most of our facial expression so why NOT have your mask "speak" for you!

These are just a few of the multitude of colors, patterns, and characters I "carry" to give away.

My goal is to change the mask "narrative" from negative to positive - the satisfaction of seeing someone's eyes light up when the find THE mask that "speaks" to them, and it is a gift from a perfect stranger is incredibly heartwarming!

(no, I do not sew - I get these thru a local mother/daughter team...)
IMG_20200819_012741.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200819_012741.jpg]
IMG_20200529_155425.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200529_155425.jpg]
IMG_20200819_011922.jpg
[Thumbnail for IMG_20200819_011922.jpg]
 
gardener
Posts: 1608
Location: South of Capricorn
602
dog rabbit urban cooking writing homestead ungarbage
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
I also did another round of mask-making this past weekend, as it seems we are going to be wearing masks for the long haul.

The first mask I made, a fitted one like those shown recently, was good, fit everyone well, but I continue to have glasses-fogging problems. (the pleated masks, btw, got a down-vote from my entire sample here, so those got thrown in the rework pile). All the quick-fixes for fogging don't seem to work or involve things I don't have access to, and right now it is winter here and it seems like my glasses are in a perma-fog. So I went looking for a solution.

This pattern turned out to be perfect, easy to wear, easy to breathe in, and even better, FOG FREE. After I made one to test out the pattern I was able to go back and "rehabilitate" the pleated masks and tie masks that didn't work out from previous rounds. (being a good Permie, of course I saved them for future use). Pattern was indeed quick and easy.
A note about the nose- two of the reworked masks had wire in the nose and I needed to go take them out, it just didn't work with the wire in there. So plus, no wire needed.
My husband has a rather broad face and the L was good for him, my face is narrower and the M was good.
The only caveat I would say is this: sew in the top loop of the elastic (or stretchy fabric- I used some t-shirt yarn for knitting) but DON'T sew in the bottom. Only do that after you've measured your person and made sure it will fit. And if you are using a softer fabric (I used an old bandanna as the tester, which was really soft and worn in) it definitely has to be well fitted.
 
r ranson
master steward & author
Posts: 20331
Location: Left Coast Canada
5615
books chicken cooking fiber arts sheep writing
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
A friend just gave me a mask to reverse engineer with an extra gusset at the bottom to tuck under the chin which she has found very comfortable on her face, but is made out of unknown materials.

I'm really pleased that there are lots of different patterns coming out as faces can be quite different and there's no reason to assume that if the first mask you try is uncomfortable/claustrophobic/steams-your-glasses that all masks will do so. Apparently someone's come up with a plastic insert that helps hold the mask fabric out from your face more, to help some people. I'm not advocating more plastic in our world - but if it makes it possible for another 5% of people to wear a mask comfortably without messing with it defeating its purpose, I will not object to those who need it, using it. The person who told me about it implied it was a washable, multi-use device, but I haven't seen it myself.

Normally, anything made of fabric that gets sold in Canada is supposed to have a label stating its contents. Somehow masks being sold in public places aren't receiving that scrutiny. I'm OK with it being a paper label in the package, and I'm OK with home-made masks makers just telling people what they've used because its a direct sale, but the mask my friend gave me seems to say nothing and there seems to be a layer between two fabric layers and we've no clue.
 
r ranson
master steward & author
Posts: 20331
Location: Left Coast Canada
5615
books chicken cooking fiber arts sheep writing
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
At the fabric store this week, I was talking with the shop keeps about lots of things, and masks came up.

Talked about different kinds of fabric being used, including fusible interfacing.  And the shop gets a lot of feedback about what masks people like.  The cotton and linen masks seem to be most comfortable.  During the summer, having a lighter cotton "lawn" (whatever that is) inside and a quilting cotton outside is the most comfortable.  They anticipate that during the winter, a flannel inside with a quilting cotton outside will be popular.  

The fusible interfacing, rayon, bamboo rayon, and other synthetics are least comfortable and some people have complained about having extra sweating, skin rash, or breathing problems with these masks - especially after washing.  They want to wear masks, can't find natural masks, so they go to the fabric store to get materials that are safer for their body.
 
Tereza Okava
gardener
Posts: 1608
Location: South of Capricorn
602
dog rabbit urban cooking writing homestead ungarbage
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
Having gone through "the winter of the mask" (spring just sprang this week) I can definitely concur.
I have a few of those synthetic fabric "buff" neckwarmer things that I use for running or athletic activities. All the rest of our masks, minus a few surgical masks made of non-woven fabric, are 100% cotton, mostly old bandanna type fabric, a few have quilting flannel lining.  
The synthetic ones were not only bad for ventilation but also got SMELLY! Even in the cold! I was amazed. The cotton/flannel ones were nice during the winter, honestly, when I was out walking the dog in the freezing cold at 7pm. In fact, I don't know how I lived in Upstate NY and northern Japan without wearing a mask on cold days (and nights).
 
Nicole Alderman
master steward
Posts: 13890
Location: Pacific Northwest
6288
hugelkultur kids cat duck forest garden foraging fiber arts sheep wood heat homestead
  • Likes 2
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
My favorite mask I made has soft swaddling blanket cloth by my face, with a layer of thin knit wool (from an old shirt) in the middle, and quilting cotton on the outside. I the wool really wicks the moisture away nicely, and the quilting cotton on the outside makes it nice and stiff so it doesn't stick to my nose when I breath, making me sneeze.
 
Jay Angler
gardener
Posts: 2957
Location: Pacific Wet Coast
1079
duck books chicken cooking food preservation ungarbage
  • Likes 1
  • Mark post as helpful
  • send pies
  • Quote
  • Report post to moderator
r ranson wrote:

They want to wear masks, can't find natural masks, so they go to the fabric store to get materials that are safer for their body.

The problem still exists that some of those fabrics - like flannel for pj's - may be treated with chemicals for fire-resistance etc. I would still want to wash the new fabric at least once before sewing.
Nicole Alderman wrote:

the wool really wicks the moisture away nicely

I'm glad you've tested that. I was thinking I'd like to try some out of wool, since my "old, trustworthy" flannel supply is getting low.  I can't try it on the next batch as the friend they're for is allergic to some wools.
gift
 
19 skiddable structures microdoc
will be released to subscribers in: soon!
reply
    Bookmark Topic Watch Topic
  • New Topic